Блейк-Словарь (Деймон)/Вала

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Блейк-Словарь / Вала / Vala
(Идеи и символы Уильям Блейка)
автор Сэмюэль Фостер Деймон, пер. Д. Смирнов-Садовский
Язык оригинала: английский. — S. Foster Damon: Blake Dictionary (англ.)
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Википроекты:  Wikipedia-logo.png Википедия 


Вала — богиня природы (Иерусалим 18:30; 34:9). Поскольку все, что мы видим, является объективацией наших эмоциё, она вполне правильно [определена] как эманация Лувы, восточного Зоа. Её имя [совпадает с именем] скандинавской пророчица и духа-хранитель земли в старшей Эдде, "Völuspa". Вагнер применил ее имя (которое он произносил «Валла») к богине земли Эрде (Зигфрид III.i и т. д.).

Вала впервые появляется в Четырех Зоа, которые изначально должны были называться «Вала» (титульная страница) или «Книга Валы» (4 Зоа I:3). Тем не менее, она не является ведущим персонажем эпопеи, хотя она является главной причиной падения Альбиона. «Среди цветов Беулы Вечный Человек, блуждая, / Увидел Валу, лилию пустынь и, утомлённый знойным полднем, / В забвеньи на груди её вкушал блаженство... / средь цветов он наслажденьям предавался. / Так Вала понесла, и был рождён Уризен, света Князь — / Он первым в Порожденьи был. Затем предстало чудо / Для взора Человека падшего: двуполое двойное существо / Явила Вала, в ужасе отпрянув, Человек /Назвал их Лувою и Валой». (4 Зоа I:286)[1]. Когда шел «помрачневший Человек» с Валой «в грёзах сладких заблуждений», он пришел поклониться своей собственной Тени, «закрыв лицо и кудри разметав по мостовой, дрожала Вала». (4 Зоа III:44–56[2]; Иерусалим 29:33–43); после чего Лува поразил его язвами Иова и сжал его четыре чувства (4 Зоа III:78–90; Иерусалим 29: 61–71). «А теперь пена человеческой крови высокая... Лува и Вала спустились в Сердце Человека, где Рай и его радости изобиловали ревнивыми страхами, яростью и яростью, пламя кружило вокруг их пылких ног, и огромная форма Природы, подобная игре Змеи перед ними. И, как они пошли, в складных огнях Громовые бездны, Вала сжалась, как темное море, которое покидает его слизистые берега; и из ее груди Лува упал так далеко, как восток и запад, и огромная форма Природы, похожая на змеиную бухту » (4 Зоа III: 94-101; Иерусалим 29:73). Они двинулись из восточного царства Лува в уризенское. И, таким образом, Вала Прекрасная форма «извлекла тело Человека с небес» (4 Зоа V. 47). Это было в то время, пока Альбион, Уризен и Вала спали, потому что Лува захватил колесницу света Уризена (4 Зоа I:263). Смотри УРИЗЕН.

Но теперь они безнадежно разделены. Вала «сладкий странник» (4 Зоа II: 110; III: 85; IX: 576). Лува вспоминает ее постоянное развитие к материальной природе, несмотря на все, что он мог сделать. Сначала она была дождевым червем, затем чешуйчатым змеем, затем драконом; он кормил ее ненасытную жажду всеми потопами небесными и повелел бездне скрывать ее; затем она стала маленьким плачущим младенцем и спряталась в своих садах, где она родила ему сыновей и дочерей; тем не менее, она всегда ненавидела его и в конце концов исчезла (4 Зоа II: 83–97). Она не узнает его; «Напрасно его любовь привела его в разные формы перед ней, но она не знала его, все же она презирала его, звала его имя и не знала его, все еще ненавидя, все еще исповедуя любовь» (4 Зоа ii: 232), «и называя его Искусителем» (4 Зоа iii: 129).

Уризен использует свое подразделение, чтобы построить Оболочку Мандана из субстанции Лувы. «Лува был брошен в печали скорби [Уризена] и запечатан, а Вала жестоко восхищал печи огнем» (4 Зоа II: 72; «J» 7:30). Лува растоплена; Огонь Валы сгорает до кучи пепла (4 Зоа II: 113); печи открыты; и Раковина Мундана отлита из субстанции Лувы, а пепел Валы смешан с минометом (4 Зоа II: 171). Сама она вынуждена с трудом оплакивать (4 Зоа ii: 215; Mil 19:43): «Я не вижу Люву с давних времен, я вижу только его ноги, как столбы огня, путешествующие во тьму и не существо» (4 Зоа II: 229).

После долгого периода Вала начинает реанимировать в разрывном сердце Энитармона («FZ» v: 179). Однако, когда она, наконец, появляется снова, она погружается в материальную форму Темной Женщины (4 Зоа VII, B: 137, 229). (См. ТЕНЕВАЯ ЖЕНЩИНА.) Призрак объявляет: «Я уничтожу мягкого Вала в объятиях этого ужаса [Орк]» (v vii: 299), и ставит его под опеку (4 Зоа VII: 332). Не говоря ни слова, она кормит его своим горьким хлебом, пока он не достигнет четырнадцати лет, не вырвется на свободу и не обнимет ее (АМ 1–2; 4 Зоа vii b: 124–43). Это начало войны; она провозглашена ее руководящим духом (v vii b: 187– 209; J 65: 29–55).

Когда Тармас не узнает Женщину, она назывет себя Валой; он отвечает: ««Грех твой нас лишил небес, блаженства. / Для нас проклятье ты!» (4 Зоа vii b: 229, 256)[3]. Но, несмотря на все прелести природы, она остается «воющей тоской» (4 Зоа vii b: 269–87). Напрасно она умоляет Уризена восстановить Луву (4 Зоа viii:145–70); она насыщает своими слезами паутину религии, которая падает, запутывающий Urizen ( FZ viii: 176).

VALA is the goddess of Nature (J 18:30; 34:9). As everything we see is an exteriorization of our emotions, she is quite properly the Emanation of Luvah, the eastern Zoa. Her name is that of the Scandinavian prophetess and guardian spirit of the earth in the oldest Edda, the “Völuspa.” Wagner applied her name (which he pronounced “Valla”) to the earth-goddess Erda (Siegfried III.i, etc.).

Vala first appears in The Four Zoas, which originally was to be called “Vala” (t.p.) or “The Book of Vala” (FZ i:3). However, she is not the leading character of the epic, although she is the prime cause of Albion’s fall. “Among the Flowers of Beulah walk’d the Eternal Man & saw Vala the lilly of the desart melting in high noon; upon her bosom in sweet bliss he fainted.... There he revel’d in delight among the Flowers. Vala was pregnant & brought forth Urizen, Prince of Light, first born of Generation. Then behold a wonder to the Eyes of the now fallen Man: a double form Vala appear’d, a Male and female; shudd’ring pale the Fallen Man recoil’d from the Enormity & call’d them Luvah & Vala” (FZ vii:239–48). He sought to comfort Vala, but she left his throne for “the shadows [delusions] of her garden, weeping for Luvah lost” (FZ i:286). When “The Dark’ning Man” walked with Vala “in dreams of soft deluding slumber,” he came to worship his own Shadow, “And Vala trembled & cover’d her face, & her locks were spread on the pavement” (FZ iii:44–56; J 29:33–43); whereupon Luvah smote him with Job’s boils and contracted his four senses (FZ iii: 78–90; J 29:61– 71). “And now the Human Blood foam’d high . . . Luvah & Vala went down the Human Heart, where Paradise & its joys abounded, in jealous fears, in fury & rage, & flames roll’d round their fervid feet, and the vast form of Nature like a Serpent play’d before them. And as they went, in folding fires & thunders of the deep, Vala shrunk in like the dark sea that leaves its slimy banks; and from her bosom Luvah fell far as the east and west, and the vast form of Nature like a Serpent roll’d between” (FZ iii:94–101; J 29:73). The two have moved from Luvah’s eastern realm into Urizen’s. And thus Vala’s lovely form “drew the body of Man from heaven” (FZ v:47). It was at this time, while Albion, Urizen, and Vala slept, that Luvah seized Urizen’s chariot of light (FZ i:263). See URIZEN.

“But Luvah and Vala standing in the bloody sky on high remain’d alone, forsaken, in fierce jealousy. They stood above the heavens, forsaken, desolate, suspended in blood. Descend they could not, nor from Each other avert their eyes.” They are vouchsafed a vision of the Incarnation, “One Man infolded in Luvah’s robes of blood,” but it means nothing to them (FZ i:359–65). The demons of the deep sing: “Luvah & Vala ride triumphant in the bloody sky, & the Human form is no more” (FZ i:408).

But the two are now hopelessly divided. Vala is “the sweet wanderer” (FZ ii:110; iii:85; ix:576). Luvah recalls her persistent development towards material nature, in spite of all he could do. First she was an earthworm, then a scaled serpent, then a dragon; he fed her insatiable thirst with all the floods of heaven and commanded the great deep to hide her; she then became a little weeping infant and hid in her gardens, where she bore him sons and daughters; nevertheless, she always hated him, and finally disappeared (FZ ii:83–97). She does not recognize him; “in vain his love brought him in various forms before her, still she knew him not, still she despis’d him, calling on his name & knowing him not, still hating, still professing love” (FZ ii:232), “ & calling him the Tempter” (FZ iii:129).

Urizen takes advantage of their division to build the Mundane Shell out of Luvah’s substance. “Luvah was cast into [Urizen’s] Furnaces of affliction & sealed, and Vala fed in cruel delight the furnaces with fire” (FZ ii:72; J 7:30). Luvah is melted down; Vala’s fires burn to a heap of ashes (FZ ii: 113); the furnaces are opened; and the Mundane Shell is cast from Luvah’s substance, while Vala’s ashes are mingled with the mortar (FZ ii:171). She herself is compelled to labor lamenting (FZ ii:215; Mil 19:43): “I see not Luvah as of old, I only see his feet like pillars of fire travelling thro’ darkness & non entity” (FZ ii:229).

After a long period, Vala begins to reanimate in Enitharmon’s bursting heart (FZ v:179). However, when at last she reappears, she has sunk into the material form of the Shadowy Female (FZ vii b:137, 229). (See SHADOWY FEMALE.) The Spectre announces: “I will bring down soft Vala to the embraces of this terror [Orc]” (FZ vii:299), and puts him in her charge (FZ vii:332). Speechless, she feeds him his bitter bread until he reaches the age of fourteen, breaks loose, and embraces her (Am 1–2; FZ vii b:124–43). This is the outbreak of war; she is hailed as its presiding spirit (FZ vii b:187– 209; J 65:29–55).

When Tharmas does not recognize the Female, she identifies herself as Vala; he replies: “Vala, thy sins have lost us heaven & bliss. Thou art our Curse” (FZ vii b:229, 256). But in spite of the beauties of nature, she remains a howling melancholy (FZ vii b:269–87). In vain she pleads with Urizen to restore Luvah (FZ viii: 145–70); she saturates with her tears the Web of Religion, which falls, entangling Urizen (FZ viii: 176).

The division of Luvah and Vala is most explicit when War becomes the Hermaphrodite, from whose bosom Satan bursts, “a male without a female counterpart . . . yet hiding the shadowy female Vala as in an ark & Curtains” (FZ viii: 253–55); at the same time, confronting Satan, Jesus appears “in the Robes of Luvah” (FZ viii: 263). To condemn Jesus as a transgressor, Urizen summons the Synagogue of Satan; in the midst is “a False Feminine Counterpart of Lovely Delusive Beauty, Dividing & Uniting at will in the Cruelties of Holiness, Vala, drawn down into a Vegetated body, now triumphant” (FZ viii:278). She has become the Scarlet Woman of Revelation, “Mystery, Babylon the Great, the Mother of Harlots” (FZ viii:330; J 70:31). But after the Crucifixion, “when Rahab had cut off the Mantle of Luvah from the Lamb of God, it roll’d apart, revealing to all . . . Rahab in all her turpitude” (FZ viii:341–44). She confronts Urizen, who “beheld reveal’d before the face of heaven his secret holiness” (FZ viii: 412); and “forgetful of his own Laws, pitying he began to embrace the shadowy Female” (FZ viii: 420); and becomes the Dragon of Revelation. But Rahab is uncertain in her mind: she questions Los, only to depart “burning with pride & revenge” (FZ viii: 410); she then alternates between the Synagogue and (in secret) Orc; with the result that the Synagogue burns her with fire, but her ashes animate and become Deism (FZ viii:618). See RAHAB. At the Last Judgment, Rahab is consumed (FZ ix:32, 67, 157, 657). When Urizen renounces his authority, he gives “all my joy unto this Luvah & Vala” (FZ ix:179), and is instantly rejuvenated. After the plowing of the First Day, “The Regenerate Man . . . in his holy hands reciev’d the flaming Demon [Orc] & Demoness of smoke and gave them to Urizen’s hands; the Immortal frown’d saying, ‘Luvah & Vala, henceforth you are Servants; obey and live. You shall forget your former state; return, & Love in peace, into your place, the place of seed, not in the brain or heart’” (FZ ix:360). They are thus demoted from Heart to Loins; love and lust become one.

Luvah and Vala then descend from Urizen’s hands into “the shadows of Vala’s Garden” (FZ ix:376). See VALA’S GARDEN, below. In this realm of reverie, closed up from the tumult of the universe, they live in their “ancient golden age” (FZ ix:386). They are still separated: Vala can see Luvah only in dreams, but she can hear his voice; meanwhile, he acts as her guardian. (Luvah in his cloud addressing Vala suggests Thel and her cloud; the invisible lover of the beautiful maiden also suggests Apuleius’ myth of Cupid and Psyche.) Vala tends her flocks, and while she sleeps at noon, the unseen Luvah constructs a palace round her. She wakes; she bathes in the river; “and as she rose her eyes were open’d to the world of waters” (FZ ix:483), where she beholds the bearded Tharmas mourning for Enion. But when she returns to her palace, she finds Tharmas and Enion playing together as two children. “Thus in Eternal Childhood, straying among Vala’s flocks, in infant sorrow & joy alternate Enion & Tharmas play’d round Vala in the Gardens of Vala & by her river’s margin. They are the shadows of Tharmas & of Enion in Vala’s world” (FZ ix:553). Whatever the state of the two in the world of Experience, the soul of sweet delight can never be defiled.

On the Second Day of Judgment, Urizen pours forth his light “to exhale the spirits” of the two “thro’ the atmosphere. . . . in all their ancient innocence,” but though they respond to the light, Luvah is still lamenting the loss of Vala (FZ ix:569–76). Their reunion is not described, but at the feast of the Fifth Day, Vala is there with the other Emanations, who rise from the feast to tend their looms (FZ ix:778–79). After the vintage, the two fall asleep on the floor (FZ ix: 788). When they wake, they try to rejoin the Eternal Man, but “he cast them wailing into the world of shadows [Vala’s Garden] . . . till winter is over & gone” (FZ ix:795–98); and presumably the spring comes on the Seventh Day. In Jerusalem, Blake studied at length the relationship of Vala and Jerusalem—of the laws of nature and freedom. Basically, the two are twin aspects of Albion’s wife, Brittannia: when the Zoas changed their places, “England, who is Brittannia, divided into Jerusalem & Vala” (36:28). When England drew away from Albion’s embrace, Jerusalem and Vala appeared in the dragon wings above her (54:31). Vala, however, is but Jerusalem’s Shadow (12:19; 31:41), “animated by [her] tears” (11:24–25), “builded by the Reasoning power in Man” (44:40). “Vala produc’d the Bodies, Jerusalem gave the Souls” (18:7).

Jesus took Jerusalem, Albion’s Emanation, as his bride, and gave Vala to Albion for his wife (20:40; 63:7; 64:19; 65:71). Thus God and Man are joined through their Emanations. “Vala was Albion’s Bride & Wife in great Eternity, the loveliest of the daughters of Eternity when in day-break I emanated from Luvah over the Towers of Jerusalem . . . why loved I Jerusalem? Why was I one with her, embracing in the Vision of Jesus?” (33:39–44).

Vala is still Luvah’s Emanation; she is also his daughter (63:7; 64:19; 80:27); she acknowledges him both as father and as lover (80:16–23). As in The Four Zoas, she fires the furnace where her unrecognized Luvah is being melted down (7:30). From the burning rises a pillar of smoke “writhing afar into Non-Entity” (5:51), which contains the weeping Vala and Jerusalem. Vala, however, being the laws of nature, is of course the enemy of Liberty: “Vala would never have sought & loved Albion if she had not sought to destroy Jerusalem; such is that false and Generating Love, a pretence of love to destroy love, cruel hipocrisy” (17:24). Vala claims dominion over her victim. “Albion is mine! Luvah gave me to Albion and now recieves reproach & hate” (31:50).

Jerusalem and Vala, “the Lilly of Havilah,” are still friends, singing together in Lambeth, when the sinking Albion finds them (19:40–24:63). Vala and Albion are obsessed with sin and guilt; Jerusalem protests against their state of mind; whereupon Albion rejects Jerusalem as a delusion, and casts Vala’s “Veil of Moral Virtue, woven for Cruel Laws . . . into the Atlantic Deep, to catch the Souls of the Dead” (23:22), then sinks down dying.

The triumphant Vala now proclaims her materialism. “I alone am Beauty. The Imaginative Human Form is but a breathing of Vala: I breathe him forth into the Heaven from my secret Cave, born of the Woman to obey the Woman, O Albion the mighty, for the Divine appearance is Brotherhood, but I am Love elevate into the Region of Brotherhood with my red fires” (33:48–34:1). Los protests: “There is a Throne in every Man, it is the Throne of God; this, Woman has claim’d as her own . . . O Albion, why wilt thou Create a Female Will?” (34:27–31). “The Satanic Holiness triumph’d in Vala, in a Religion of Chastity & Uncircumcised Selfishness both of the Head & Heart & Loins, clos’d up in Moral Pride” (60:47). Nevertheless, she is to give birth to Jesus; his female ancestors are “the Daughters of Vala, Mother of the Body of death” (62:7, 13).

When war breaks out, Vala begins to use her “Druid Knife of Revenge & the Poison Cup of Jealousy” (63:39), which Albion has recognized as hers (22:29). She vegetates into “a hungry Stomach & a devouring Tongue. Her Hand is a Court of Justice: her Feet two Armies in Battle: Storms & Pestilence in her Locks, & in her Loins Earthquake and Fire & the Ruin of Cities & Nations & Families & Tongues” (64:8). The Spectre draws her into his bosom: they stand frowning, the dark Hermaphrodite of War, while Vala turns the iron Spindle of destruction (64:25, 31; 66:10; 71:60). She becomes Rahab (70:31). The Sons of Albion crown her and give her power over the earth (78:15–16). Jerusalem asks what her purposes are (79:68); and nonetheless sincere for being quite confused, she replies: “My Father gave to me command to murder Albion in unreviving Death; my Love, my Luvah, order’d me in night to murder Albion, the King of Men; he fought in battles fierce, he conquer’d Luvah, my beloved, he took me and my Father, he slew them. I revived them to life in my warm bosom. He saw them issue from my bosom dark in Jealousy. He burn’d before me. Luvah fram’d the Knife & Luvah gave the Knife into his daughter’s hand . . . But I, Vala, Luvah’s daughter, keep his body, embalm’d in moral laws with spices of sweet odours of lovely jealous stupefaction, within my bosom, lest he arise to life & slay my Luvah” (80:16–29).

Vala-Rahab refuses to take definite form (80:52). Therefore Los tells Albion to determine “a form for Vala and a form for Luvah . . . nail them down on the stems of Mystery” (83:10–13). Vala and Jerusalem cease to mourn when they hear Los’s Watch Song (85:15); and Jerusalem takes away “the Cup which foam’d in Vala’s hand” (88:56). Vala-Rahab then manifests as the Whore of Babylon in the tabernacle of the Covering Cherub (89:52), and vanishes forever when England-Brittannia wakes: “I have slain in Dreams of Chastity & Moral Law: I have Murdered Albion!. . . I have Slain him in my Sleep with the Knife of the Druid” (94:20–25). But at her repentance, Albion wakes and slays the Covering Cherub.

VALA’S CUP is the Cup of Mystery, the Whore of Babylon, who has “a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication” (Rev xvii:4). Blake calls it “the Poison Cup of Jealousy” (J 63:39), with “Poisons Twenty-seven-fold” (J 75:3), and “the Cup of Delusion” whereby one may reign in pride and oppress an earthly kingdom (J 85:31). Bath stands on the Severn, “the Cup of Rahab in his hand” (J 75:2–3); Jerusalem finally takes it away from Vala (J 88:56). It is associated with the “Druid Knife of Revenge” (J 22:29; 63:39). Once it is identified with the communion cup of worldly religion (J 91:13).

In the engraving of Chaucer’s pilgrims, the Wife of Bath holds it, thus identifying her as Rahab.

VALA’S GARDEN is the realm of daydreaming, where our hopes and fears take fugitive shapes. Being part subconscious, it is entered through “the Gates of Dark Urthona” (FZ ix:375). Here “the impressions of Despair & Hope for ever vegetate in flowers, in fruits, in fishes, birds & beasts & clouds & waters, the land of doubts & shadows, sweet delusions, unform’d hopes” (FZ ix:377), where Luvah and Vala, shut off from the tumult of the universe, renew “their ancient golden age” (FZ ix:386). They have recovered their Innocence in the state of reverie. When Vala turns guiltily from Albion after their embrace, she takes refuge here, weeping for her lost Luvah (FZ i:286). After Urizen has told the two to behave, they walk from his hands into these “shadows” (FZ ix:376) and find themselves again in the state of Innocence. When Man rejects the two before the great work is finished, he casts them into this garden (FZ ix:798).

Vala’s Garden was probably suggested by Spenser’s Gardens of Adonis, “the first seminarie of all things that are borne to live and die” (FQ III.vi.30–44). But where Spenser described the philosophical concept of the realm of Platonic ideas, Blake was describing a state of mind familiar to us all.

VALA’S VEIL is the film of matter which covers all reality.

It is the Mundane Shell (J 42:81; 59:7; GoP 17, K 770).

It is our body of flesh (J 55:11; 65:61; 67:16; 90:4) and is therefore described as scarlet (J 21:50); or of blood (J 67:16; 68:21; 90:4), although in the pictures it is usually blue or dark gray. It is the code of Moral Law (J 21:15; 23:22, 31), “composed of the Spectres of the Dead” (J 47:12)—the reasonings of those blind to Eternity.

It is the Veil in the Temple, which conceals the divinity (J 56:40; 59:55—cf. Exod xxvi:1, 7, 31), and which Jesus rends at the Crucifixion (Matt xxvii:51; J 30:40; 55:16; 65:61), “ & the whole Druid Law removes away” (J 69:39).

In Jerusalem, when Vala first wove of tears (20:3) her “beautiful net of gold and silver twine” (20:30), she caught her then beloved Jerusalem in its bands of love. Albion, furiously in love with Vala’s beauty, embraced her, rending the Veil (20:36). His soul then melted away “inwoven within the Veil,” which Jerusalem had reknitted (23:4). Guilty, he “recoil’d: he rush’d outwards: he bore the Veil whole away. . . . He drew the Veil of Moral Virtue, woven for Cruel Laws, and cast it into the Atlantic Deep, to catch the Souls of the Dead” (23:20–23), “a Law, a Terror & a Curse” (23:32). “Thund’ring the Veil rushes from his hand, Vegetating Knot by Knot, Day by Day, Night by Night” (24:61). When it began “to Vegetate & Petrify around the Earth of Albion among the Roots of his Tree,” Los formed it into “the beautiful Mundane Shell, the Habitation of the Spectres of the Dead” (59:2–8). It is “the Net & Veil of Vala among the Souls of the Dead” (42:81), “composed of the Spectres of the Dead” (47:12).

Примечания

  1. (4 Зоа 83:7-18)
  2. (4 Зоа 39:15—40:9)
  3. (4 Зоа 94:24-25)

© D. Smirnov-Sadovsky. Translation. Commentary / © Д. Смирнов-Садовский. Перевод. Комментарий



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