Аннотации к Лафатеру (Блейк/Смирнов)
|Аннотации к Лафатеру — переведённые Генри Фюзели с немецкого на английский
, пер. Д. Смирнов-Садовский
|Язык оригинала: английский. Название в оригинале: Annotations to Lavater's Aphorisms on Man. — Опубл.: 1788. Источник: http://www.blakearchive.org/exist/blake/archive/erdgen.xq?id=b4.2|
Аннотации к «Афоризмам о Человеке» Иоганна Каспара Лафатера
[ Титульная страница ]
[ подписано и подчёркнуто под именем «Лафатер». Оба имени обведены росчерком в форме сердца ]
[ Страница 1 ]
Чтобы понять смысл этих заметок, прочтите последний афоризм.
[ Блейк имеел в виду афоризм 643:
«Если вы желаете познать себя, подчеркните те афоризмы, которые приятно взволнуют вас при чтении, и отметьте те из них, которые заставят вас смутят, а затем покажите их тому, кто вам приятен».
Блейк пометил большим диагональным крестом (X) (здесь приводится рядом с номером афоризма) то, что привело его в смущение. То что ему понравилось, он подчеркнул, иногда с добавив прямой крест (†) ]
Annotations to Lavater's Aphorisms on Man t
[ TITLE PAGE ]
[signed and underlined, beneath the printed "Lavater", the two names then being enclosed in an outline of a heart]
[ PAGE 1 ]
for the reason of these remarks see the last aphorism
[ Blake is referring to 643:
“If you mean to know yourself, interline such of these aphorisms as affected you agreeably in reading, and set a mark to such as left a sense of uneasiness with you; and then shew your copy to whom you please.”
Blake's mark of uneasiness, a large rough (X) in the margin, is shown here by an (X) beside the number of the aphorism. His underlining of agreeable passages is represented by italics, and he occasionally supplements the underlining with a square dagger of emphatic approval, as shown. (†) ]
«Афоризмы о Человеке» / Aphorisms on Man
1. Знайте, во-первых, все люди схожи по своей сути так же, как они схожи телом и чувствами.
2. Все люди различны по своей сути так же, как они различны формой тела и чувствами — и только так, но не более.
Это истинная христианская философия, гораздо выше любой абстракции.
[замечание к обоим афоризмам, под каждым добавлена линия]
3. Посмотрев вверх на небо, каждый может подумать, что он центр мироздания; так природа создала своих индивидов, чтобы каждый видел себя в центре бытия.
Позвольте мне отнести сюда ремарку к афоризму 533 и другую к 630
8. Тот кто ищет недостойных, противоречивых и саморазрушительных способов наслаждения, является глупцом, или то что называют грешником — Грех и нарушение порядка одно и то же.
11. Чем меньше вы можете наслаждаться, тем беднее и ограниченнее вы сами — чем больше вы можете наслаждаться, тем вы богаче и сильнее.
Вы получаете удовольствие от мудрости или глупости также, как удовлетворение ваших аппетитов укрепляет или ослабляет ваши силы.
[? Сомнительно] ложно, ибо слаба та радость, которая никогда не приедается. 
(Запись относится ко второму пункту)
1. Know, in the first place, that mankind agree in essence, as they do in their limbs and senses.
2. Mankind differ as much in essence as they do in form, limbs, and senses-and only so, and not more. [Begin Page 584]
This is true Christian philosophy far above all abstraction
[written beside both aphorisms, with a line under each]
3. As in looking upward each beholder thinks himself the centre of the sky; so Nature formed her individuals, that each must see himself the centre of being.
Let me refer here, to a remark on aphorism 533 & another on. 630
8. Who pursues means of enjoyment contradictory, irreconcilable, and self-destructive, is a fool, or what is called a sinner-- Sin and destruction of order are the same.
a golden sentence
11. The less you can enjoy, the poorer, the scantier yourself--the more you can enjoy, the richer, the more vigorous.
You enjoy with wisdom or with folly, as the gratification of your appetites capacitates or unnerves your powers.
[?Doubtful] false for weak is the joy that is never wearied
(Written beside the second paragraph)
14. ...Предмет твоей любви — и есть твой Бог.
Это должно быть написано золотыми буквами на всех храмах.
13. joy and grief decide character. What exalts prosperity? what imbitters grief? what leaves us indifferent? what interests us? As the interest of man, so his God--as his God, so he.
14. What is a man's interest? what constitutes his God, the ultimateof his wishes, his end of existence? Either that which on every occasion be communicates with the most unrestrained cordiality, or hides from every profane eye and ear with mysterious awe; to which he makes every other thing a mere appendix;--the vortex, the centre, the comparative point from which he sets out, on which he fixes, to which he irresistibly returns;--that, at the loss of which you may safely think him inconsolable;--that which he rescues from the gripe of danger with equal anxiety and boldness.
The story of the painter and the prince is well known: to get at the best piece in the artist's collection, . . .
[All bracketed to this comment:]
[The story continues, unmarked, and concludes:] . . . of thousands it may be decided what loss, what gain, would affect them most. And suppose we cannot pronounce on others, cannot we determine on ourselves? This the sage of Nazareth meant when he said, WHERE THY TREASURE IS, THERE WILL THY HEART BE ALSO- -The object of your love is your God.
This should be written in gold letters on our temples
16. The greatest of characters, no doubt, was he, who, free of all trifling accidental helps, could see objects through one grand immutable medium, always at hand, and proof against illusion and time, reflected by every object, and invariably traced through all the fluctuation of things.
this was Christ
20. Distinguish with exactness, in thyself and others, between WISHES and WILL, in the strictest sense.
Who has many wishes has generally but little will. Who has energy of will has few diverging wishes. Whose will is bent with energy on ONE, MUST renounce the wishes for MANY things. Who cannot do this is not stamped with the majesty of human nature. The energy of choice, the unison of various powers for one is only WILL, born under the agonies of self-denial and renounced desires.
X21.Calmness of will is a sign of grandeur. The vulgar, far from hiding their WILL, blab their wishes--a single spark of occasion discharges the child of passions into a thousand crackers of desire.
See 384. [Begin Page 585]
23. Who in the same given time can produce more than many others, has VIGOUR; who can produce more and better, has TALENTS; who can produce what none else can, has GENIUS.</ref>
25. WISHES run over into loquacious impotence, WILL presses on with laconic energy. [Horizontal line in left margin]
28. The glad gladdens--who gladdens not is not glad. Who is fatal to others is so to himself--to him, heaven, earth, wisdom, folly, virtue, vice, are equallyso--to such an one tell neither good nor bad of yourself.
59. Презрительная умешка часто является знаком бессердечной злобы.
К чёрту Насмешников!
66. Может ли любящий правду, сделать своим другом негодяя.
114. Тот кто пишет, как говорит, говорит, как пишет, и выглядит так, как он говорит и пишет — честен.
115. Привычка насмехаться отмечает эгоистп, глупци или негодяя — или всех троих. —всех троих
Х150. Каковы ваши враги и ваши друзья — таковы и вы. Очень смутно. Х151. Вы можете быть уверены, что тот человек добр, чьи все близкие друзья отличаются добротой, и чьи враги имеют решительно дурной характер. Смутно. Боюсь, что у меня немного врагов
157. Не говорите, что вы знаете кого-то в совершенстве, пока вы не делите имущества с ним. . !!
X36. Who begins with severity, in judging of another, ends commonly with falsehood.
Severity of judgment is a great virtue
X37. The smiles that encourage severity of judgment, hide malice and insincerity.
Aphorisms should be universally true
X39. Who, without pressing temptation, tells a lie, will, without pressing temptation, act ignobly and meanly.
a man may lie for his own pleasure. but if any one is hurt by his lying will confess his lie see N 124
40. Who, under pressing temptations to lie, adheres to truth, nor to the profane betrays aught of a sacred trust, is near the summit of wisdom and virtue.
43. As the present character of a man, so his past, so his future Who knows intuitively the history of the past, knows his destiny to come.
44. YOU can depend on no man, on no friend, but him who can depend on himself. He onlywho acts consequentially toward himselfwill act so toward others, and VICE VERSA.
Man is for ever the same; the same under every form, in all situations and relations that admit of free and unrestrained exertion. The same regard which you have for yourself, you have for others, for nature, for the invisible NUMEN, which you call God--Who has witnessed one freeand unconstrained act of yours, has witnessed all.
X54.Frequent laughing has been long called a sign of a little mind--whilst the scarcer smile of harmless quiet has been complimented as the mark of a noble heart--But to abstain from laughing, and exciting laughter, merely not to offend, or to risk giving offence, or not to debase the inward dignity of character- -is a power unknown to many a vigorous mind.
I hate scarce smiles I love laughing
59. A sneer is often the sign of heartless malignity.
60. Who courts the intimacy of a professed sneerer, is a professed knave.
61. I know not which of these two I should wish to avoid most; the scoffer at virtue and religion, who, with heartless villany, butchers innocence and truth; or the pietist, who crawls, groans, blubbers, and secretly says to gold, thou art my hope! and to his belly, thou art my god !
I hate crawlers
[Begin Page 586] 62. All moral dependence on him, who has been guilty Of ONE act of positive cool villany,against an acknowledged, virtuous and noble character, is credulity, imbecility, or insanity.
is being like him rather
63. The most stormy ebullitions of passion, from blasphemy to murder, are less terrific than one single act of cool villany: a still RABIES is more dangerous than the paroxisms of a fever--Fear the boisterous savage of passion less than the sedate grin of villany.
66. Can he love truth who can take a knave to his bosom?
67. There are offences against individuals, to all appearance trifling, which are capital offences against the human race--fly him who can commit them.
68. There ought to be a perpetual whisper in the ear of plain honesty--take heed not even to pronounce the name of a knave--he will make the very sound of his name a handle of mischief. And do you think a knave begins mischief to leave off? Know this-- whether be overcome or be foiled, be will wrangle on.
therefore pronounce him a knave, why should honesty fear a knave
69. Humility and love, whatever obscurities may involve religious tenets, constitute the essence of true religion. The humble is formed to adore; the loving to associate with eternal love.
X70. Have you ever seen a vulgar mind warm or humble? or a proud one that could love?--where pride begins, love ceases--as love, so humility--as both, so the still real power of man.
<pride may love>(over a deletion)
X71. Every thing may be mimicked by hypocrisy, but humility and love united. The humblest star twinkles most in the darkest night--the more rare humility and love united, the more radiant where they meet.
all this may be mimicked very well. this Aphorism certainly was an oversight for what are all crawlers but mimickers of humility & love
X73.Modesty is silent when it would not be improper to speak: the humble, without being called upon, never recollects to say any thing of himself.
78. The wrath that on conviction subsides into mildness, is the wrath of a generous mind.
80. Thousands are hated, whilst none are ever loved, without a real cause. The amiable alone can be loved.
81. He who is loved and commands love, when he corrects or is the cause of uneasiness, must be loveliness itself; and
82. He who can love him, in the moment of correction, is the most amiable of mortals,
83. He, to whom you may tell any thing, may see every thing, and will betray nothing.
X86. The freer you feel yourself in the presence of another, the more free is he: who is free makes free.
X92.Who instantly does the best that can be done, what no other could have done, and what all must acknowledge to be the best, is a genius and a hero at once.
[Begin Page 587] 93. The discovery of truth, by slow progressive meditation, is wisdom--Intuition of truth, not preceded by perceptible meditation, is genius.
94. The degree of genius is determined by its velocity, clearness, depth, simplicity, copiousness, extent of glance (COUP D'OEIL), and instantaneous intuition of the whole at once.
copiousness of glance
X96. Dread more the blunderer's friendship than the calumniator's enmity.
I doubt this
X97. He only, who can give durability to his exertions, has genuine power and energy of mind.
X98. Before thou callest a man hero or genius, investigate whetlier his exertion has features of indelibility; for all that is celestial, all genius, is the offspring of immortality.
99. Who despises all that is despicable, is made to he impressed with all that is grand.
107.Who takes from you, ought to give in his turn, or he is a thief: I distinguish taking and accepting, robbing and receiving: many give already by the mere wish to give; their still unequivocal wish of improvement and gratitude, whilst it draws from us, opens treasures within us, that might have remained locked up, even to ourselves.
Noble & Generous
114. Who writes as he speaks, speaks as he writes, looks as he speaks and writes--is honest.
115.A habit of sneering marks the egotist, or the fool, or the knave--or all three.
X121. Who knows not how to wait with YES, will often be with shame reduced to say No. Letting "I DARE NOT wait upon I WOULD"
124. Who has a daring eye, tells downright truths and downright lies.
contrary to N 39 but most True
X141. Many trifling inattentions, neglects, indiscretions- -are so many unequivocal proofs of dull frigidity, hardness, or extreme egotism.
X15O. As your enemies and your friends, so are you.
X151. You may depend upon it that he is a good man whose intimate friends are all good, and whose enemies are characters decidedly bad.
I fear I have not many enemies
157. Say not you know another entirely, till you have divided an inheritance with him.
X163. Who, at the pressing solicitation of bold and noble confidence, hesitates one moment before he consents, proves himself at once inexorable.
I do not believe it
[Begin Page 588]
X164. Who, at the solicitations of cunning, self-interest, silliness, or impudence, hesitates one moment before he refuses, proves himself at once a silly giver.
165. Examine carefully whether a man is fonder of exceptions than of rules; as he makes use of exceptions he is sagacious; as he applies them against the rule he is wrong-headed. I heard in one day a man, who thought himself wise, . . . sophist's character. . . (Vertical line in margin of passage from "rules" to "wise")
X168.Whenever a man undergoes a considerable change, in consequence of being observed by others, whenever he assumes another gait, another language, than what he had before he thought himself observed, be advised to guard yourself against him.
203. Кто ищет общества тех, кто значительнее его, наслаждается их величием, и забывает о своих лучших качествах, выше ставя качества других, уже сам поистине велик.
Надеюсь я не льщу себе, говоря, что мне это нравится
248. Знай, что великое искусство любить врага своиго заключается в том, чтобы никогда не утрачивать способности видеть человека в нём... Никто не может видеть во враге человека; если он враг по невежеству, он не настоящий враг; если он такой злонамеренно, то он не человек. Я не могу любить врага, ибо он не человек, но зверь и дьявол, если у меня есть такие. Я могу любить его как зверя, и хочу побить его.
285. Тот кто может в любое время жертвовать удовольствием ради долга, достигает величия.
295. Кто может скрыть свой великодушный поступок, находится на высочайшем уровне человеческой природы, и обожаем миром духов.
305. Не становись четвёртым другом, того, у кого было трое до этого, и он растеерял их. Превосходное правило.
309. ...Всё живущее священно.
328. Держи на расстоянии по крайней мере трёх шагов от себя того, кто ненавидит хлеб, музыку и смех ребёнка. Лучшее в этой книге.
359. Человек с хорошим характером никогда не придирается.
365. Тот может любить, кто умеет прощать всё и ничего.
376. ...любовь — есть жизнь.
385. Тот, кого не любят, не может любить. Сомнительно.
409. Активное Зло лучше, чем Пассивное Добро.
170. I am prejudiced in favour of him who can solicit boldly, without impudence--he has faith in humanity--hehas faith in himself. No one, who is not accustomed to give grandly, can ask nobly and with boldness.
176. As a man's salutation, so the total of his character: in nothing do we lay ourselves so open as in our manner of meeting and salutation.
177. Be afraid of him who meets you with friendly aspect, and, in the midst of a flattering salutation, avoids your direct open look.
185. All finery is a sign of littleness.
200. The more honesty a man has, the less he affects the air of a saint--the affectation of sanctity is a blotch on the face of piety.
201. There are more heroes than saints; (heroes I call rulers over the minds and destinies of men); more saints than humane characters, Him, who humanises all that is within and around himself, adore: I know but of one such by tradition.
203. Who seeks those that are greater than himself, their greatness enjoys, and forgets his greatest qualities in their greater ones, is already truly great.
I hope I do not flatter my self that this is pleasant to me
219. <†>None love without being loved; and none beloved is without loveliness.
225. The friend of order has made half his way to virtue.
X226. There is no mortal truly wise and restless at once- -wisdom is the repose of minds.
242. The connoisseur in painting discovers an original by some great line, though covered with dust, and disguised by daubing; so he who studies man discovers a valuable character by some original trait, though unnoticed, disguised, or debased- -ravished at the discovery, he feels it his duty to restore it to its own genuine splendour. Him who, in spite of contemptuous pretenders, has the boldness to do this, choose for your friend.
244. Who writes what he should tell, and dares not tell what he writes, is either like a wolf in sheep's clothing, or like a sheep in a wolfs skin.
Some cannot tell what they can write tho they dare
[Begin Page 589] 248. Know that the great art to love your enemy consists in never losing sight of MAN in him: humanity has power over all that is human; the most inhuman man still remains man, and never CAN throw off all taste for what becomes a man--but you must learn to wait.
none can see the man in the enemy if he is ignorantly so, he is not truly an enemy if maliciously not a man
I cannot love my enemy for my enemy is not man but beast & devil if I have any. I can love him as a beast & wish to beat him
253. Who welcomes the look of the good is good himself.
254. I know deists, whose religiousness I venerate, and atheists, whose honesty and nobleness of mind I wish for; but I have not yet seen the man who could have temptedme to think him honest who[m] I knew publicly acted the Christian whilst privately he was a positive deist.
(Whom corrected towho, in accord with Errata list)
256. He who laughed at you till he got to your door, flattered you as you opened it--felt the force of your argument whilst he was with you--applauded when he rose, and, after he went away,blasts you--has the most indisputable title to an archdukedom in hell.
Such a one I can never forgive while he continues such a one
X261. Ask not only, am I hated? but, by whom?-- am I loved?but why?--as the GOOD love thee, the BAD will hate thee.
272. Who can act or performas if each work or action were the first, the last, and only one in his life, is great [in his sphere.]
[The last three words deleted by Blake]
X276. We can do all by speech and silence. He, who understands the double art of speaking opportunely to the moment, and of saying not a syllable more or less than it demanded--and he who can wrap himself up in silence when every word would be in vain--will understand to connect energy with patience.
278. Let the unhappiness you feel at another's errors, and thehappiness you enjoy in their perfections, be the measure of your progress in wisdom and virtue.
279. Who becomes every day more sagacious, in observing his own faults, and the perfections of another, without either envying him or despairing of himself, is ready to mount the ladder on which angels ascend and descend.
282. The more there is of mind in your solitary employments, the more dignity there is in your character.
285. He, who can at all times sacrifice pleasure to duty, approaches sublimity.
[Vertical line in margin; also underlined]
287. The most eloquent speaker, the most ingenious writer, and the most accomplished statesman, cannot effect so much as the mere presence of the man [who tempers his wisdom and his vigour with, humanity.]
[The last nine words deleted by Blake]
[Begin Page 590] 289. Between the best and the worst, there are, you say, innumerable degrees--and you are right; but admit that I am right too, in saying that the best and the worst differ only in one thing--<†>in the object of their love.
290. What is it you love in him you love? what is it you hate in him you hate? Answer this closely to yourself, pronounce it loudly, and you will know yourself and him.
292. If you see one cold and vehement at the same time, set him down for a fanatic.
295. Who can hide magnanimity, stands on the supreme degree of human nature, and is admired by the world of spirits.
301. He has not a little of the devil in him who prays and bites.
there is no other devil, he who bites without praying is only a beast
302. He who, when called upon to speak a disagreeable truth, tells it boldly and has done, is both bolder and milder than he who nibbles in a low voice, and never ceases nibbling.
305. Be not the fourth friend of him who had three before and lost them.
an excellent rule
X308. Want of friends argues either want of humility or courage, or both.
309. He who, at a table of forty covers, thirty-nine of which are exquisite, and one indifferent, lays hold of that, and with a "damn your dinner" dashes it in the landlord's face, should be sent to Bethlem or to Bridewell--and whither he, who blasphemes a book, a work of art, or perhaps a man of nine-and-thirty good and but one bad quality, and calls those fools or flatterers who, engrossed by the superior number of good qualities, would fain forget the bad one<?>
[Question marked added by Blake]
to hell till he behaves better. mark that I do not believe there is such a thing litterally. but hell is the being shut up in the possession of corporeal desires which shortly weary the man for all life is holy
328. Keep him at least three paces distant who hates bread, music, and the laugh of a child.
the best in the book
333. Between passion and lie there is not a finger's breadth.
Lie, is the contrary to Passion
334.. Avoid, like a serpent, him who writes impertinently, yet speaks politely.
a dog get a stick to him
X338. Search carefully if one patiently finishes what he boldly began.
339. Who comes from the kitchen smells of its smoke; who adheres to a sect has something of its cant:the college-air pursues the student, and dry inhumanity him who herds with literary pedants.
341. Call him truly religious who believes in something higher, more powerful, more living, than visible nature; and who, clear as his own existence, feels his conformity to that superior being.
[Begin Page 591] 342. [Superstition]<Hipocrisy>always inspires littleness, religion grandeur of mind: the [superstitious]<hypocrite>raises beings inferior to himself to deities.
no man was ever truly superstitious who was not truly religious as far as he knew
True superstition is ignorant honesty & this is beloved of god & man
I do not allow that there is such a thing as Superstition taken in the strict sense of the word
A man must first decieve himself before he is <thus> Superstitious & so he is a hypocrite
Hipocrisy. is as distant from superstition. as the wolf from the lamb.
343. Who are the saints of humanity? those whom perpetual habits of goodness and of grandeur have made nearly unconscious that what they do is good or grand--<†>heroes with infantine simplicity.
<†>this is heavenly
345. The jealous is possessed by a "fine mad devil*" and a dull spirit at once.
pity the jealous
352. He alone has energy that cannot be deprived of it,
353. Sneers are the blasts that precede quarrels.
hate the sneerer
354. Who loves will not be adored.
359. No great character cavils.
365. He can love who can forget all and nothing.
366. The purest religion is the most refined Epicurism. He, who in the smallest given time can enjoy most of what he never shall repent, and what furnishesenjoyments, still more unexhausted, still less changeable--is the most religious and the most voluptuous of men.
True Christian philosophy
370. The generous, who is always just--and the just, who is always generous--may, unannounced, approach the throne of God.
375. Let me once more, in other words, repeat it--he is the king of kings who longs for nothing, and wills but ONE at once.
376. Spare the lover without flattering his passion; to make the pangs of love the butt of ridicule, is unwise and harsh--soothing meekness and wisdom subdue in else unconquerable things.
and consider that love is life
377. There is none so bad to do the twentieth part of the evil he might, nor any so good as to do the tenth part of the good it is in his power to do. Judge of yourself by the good you might do and neglect--and of others by the evil they might do and omit--and your judgment will be poised between too much indulgence for yourself and too much severity on others.
380. To him who is simple, and inexhaustible, like nature, simple and inexhausted nature resigns her sway.
[Begin Page 592] 383. How can he be pious who loves not the beautiful, whilst piety is nothing but the love of beauty? Beauty we Call the MOST VARIED ONE, the MOST UNITED VARIETY. Could there be a man who should harmoniously unite each variety of knowledge and of powers--were he not the most beautiful? were he not your god?
this is our Lord
384. Incredible are his powers who DESIRES nothing that he CANNOT WILL.
See 20 & 21
X385. The unloved cannot love.
X386. Let the object of love be careful to lose none of its loveliness.
X389. We cannot be great, if we calculate how great we and how little others are, and calculate not how great others, how minute, how impotent ourselves.
391. He loves unalterably who keeps within the bounds of love; who always shews somewhat less than what he is possessed of--nor ever utters a syllable,or gives a hint, of more thanwhat in fact remains behind--is just and friendly in the same degree.
396. Who kindles love loves warmly.
400. There is a manner of forgiving so divine, that you are ready to embrace the offender for having called it forth.
this I cannot conceive
401. Expect the secret resentment of him whom your forgiveness has impressed with a sense of his inferiority; expect the resentment of the woman whose proffered love you have repulsed; yet surer still expect the unceasing rancour of envy against the progress of genius and merit--renounce the hopes of reconciling him: but know, that whilst you steer on, mindless of his grin, allruling destiny will either change his rage to awe, or blast his powers to their deepest root.
If you expect his resentment you do not forgive him now.tho you did once forgiveness of enemies can only come upon their repentance
407. Whatever is visible is the vessel or veil of the invisible past, present, future--as man penetrates to this more, or perceives it less, he raises or depresses his dignity of being.
A vision of the Eternal Now--
408. Let none turn over books, or roam the stars in quest of God, who sees him not in man.
409. He alone is good, who, though possessed of energy, prefers virtue, with the appearance of weakness, to the invitation of acting brilliantly ill.
Noble But Mark Active Evil is better than Passive Good.
413. ...каждый гений, каждый герой является пророком.
424. Любовь видит то, что ничей глаз не видит; любовь слышит то, что ничей слух не слышит; и то, что никогда не возникало в сердце человеческом, любовь превращает в свой предмет. В высшей степени замечательно.
450. Женщина, чья преобладающая страсть не тщеславие, превосходит любого мужчину равных с нею способностей. Такую женщину я обожаю.
Многообразие не обязательно предполагает уродство. Ибо роза и лилия различны и обе красивы. Красота обильна, но не уродством, а красотой, и если уродство соединяется с красотой, это не является обилием красоты...
533. Встречаясь ежедневно с современным плутовством, я часто, слишком часто испытывал соблазн, презирать человеческую природу в каждом индивиде, пока, подробно анализируя каждый трюк, не обнаружил, что мошенник всего лишь Энтузиаст или Временный Недоумок. Это открытие минутного безумия, симптомы которого обнаруживают мудрейшие и лучшие умы, бросил большой утешительный свет на мои запросы в отношении нравственной природы человека...
Человек это ковчег Божий, милосердие восседает над ним, ковче охраняют херувимы с обеих сторон, и в центре его находится священный завет; человек это либо ковчег Божий, либо призрак земли и воды, и если ты стремишься с помощью человеческой политики управлять этим ковчегом, вспомни Озу, из II книги Самуила, гл. 6 . Плутовство, это не человеческая природа – мошенники это мошенники, см.№ 554. Этот афоризм мне хотелось бы исключить.
X410. Clearness, rapidity, comprehension of look, glance (what the French call 'COUP D'OEIL'), is the greatest, simplest, most inexhausted gift a mortal can receive from heaven: who has that has all; and who has it not has little of what constitutes the good and great.
413. As the presentiment of the possible, deemed impossible, so genius, so heroism--every genius, every hero, is a prophet.
X414. He who goes one step beyond his real faith, or presentiment, is in danger of deceiving himself and others.
[Begin Page 593] 416 He, who to obtain much will suffer little or nothing, can never be called great; and none ever little, who, to obtain one great object, will suffer much.
the man who does this is a Sectary therefore not great
419. You beg as you question.; you give as you answer.
424. Love sees what no eye sees; love hears what no ear hears; and what never rose in the heart of man love prepares for itsobject.
426. Him, who arrays malignity in good nature and treachery in familiarity, a miracle of Omnipotence alone can make an honest man.
no Omnipotence can act against order
427. He, who sets fire to one part of a town to rob more safely in another, is, no doubt, a villain: what will you call him, who, to avert suspicion from himself, accuses the innocent of a crime he knows himself guilty of, and means to commit again?
432. The richer you are, the more calmly you bear the reproach of poverty: the more genius you have, the more easily you bear the imputation of mediocrity.
435. There is no instance of a miser becoming a prodigal without losing his intellect; but there are thousands of prodigals becoming misers; if, therefore, your turn be profuse, nothing is so much to be avoided as avarice:and, if you be a miser, procure a physician who can cure an irremediable disorder.
437. Avarice has sometimes been the flaw of great men, but never of great minds; great men produce effects that cannot be produced by a thousand of the vulgar; but great minds are stamped with expanded benevolence, unattainable by most.
X440. He is much greater and more authentic, who produces one thing entire and perfect, than he who does many by halves.
X444. Say what you please of your humanity, no wise man will ever believe a syllable while I and MINE are the two only gates at which you sally forth and enter, and through which alone all must pass who seek admittance.
447. Who hides love, to bless with unmixed happiness, is great, like the king of heaven.
I do not understand this or else I do not agree to it I know not what hiding love means
X449. Trust not him with your secrets, who, when left alone in your room, turns over your papers.
uneasy yet I hope I should not do it
450. A woman whose ruling passion is not vanity, is superior to any man of equal faculties.
Such a woman I adore
451. He who has but one way of seeing every thing is as important for him who studies man as fatal to friendship.
this I do not understand
[Begin Page 594] 452. Who has written will write again, says the Frenchman; [he who has written against you will write against you again ]: he who has begun certain things is under the [ curse]<blessing>of leaving off no more.
[Text altered by Blake]
X460. Nothing is more impartial than the stream-like public; always the same and never the same; of whom, sooner or later, each misrepresented character obtains justice, and each calumniated, honour: he who cannot wait for that, is either ignorant of human nature, or feels that he was not made for honour.
462. The obstinacy of the indolent and weak is less conquerable than that of the fiery and bold.
463. Who, with calm wisdom alone, imperceptibly directs the obstinacy of others, will be the most eligible friend or the most dreadful enemy.
this must be a grand fellow
X465. He is condemned to depend on no man's modesty and honour who dares not depend on his own.
477. The frigid smiler, crawling, indiscreet, obtrusive, brazen-faced, is a scorpion-whip of destiny-avoid him!
& never forgive him till he mends
X486. Distrust your heart and the durability of your fame, if from the stream of occasion you snatch a handful of foam; deny the stream, and give its name to the frothy bursting bubble.
this I lament that I have done
487. If you ask me which is the real hereditary sin of human nature, do you imagine I shall answer pride? or luxury? or ambition? or egotism? no; I shall say indolence--who conquers indolence will conquer all the rest.
Pride fullness of bread & abundance of Idlenesswas the sin of Sodom. See Ezekiel Ch xvi. 49 ver
489. An entirely honest man, in the severe sense of the word, exists no more than an entirely dishonest knave: the best and the worst are only approximations of those qualities. Who are those that never contradict themselves? yet honesty never contradicts itself: who are those that always contradict themselves? yet knavery is mere self-contradiction. Thus the knowledge of man determines not the things themselves, but their proportions, the quantum of congruities and incongruities.
Man is a twofold being. one part capable of evil & the other capable of good that which is capable of good is not also capable of evil. but that which is capable of evil is also capable of good. this aphorism seems to consider man as simple & yet capable of evil. now both evil & good cannot exist in a simple being. for thus 2 contraries would. spring from one essence which is impossible. but if man is considerd as only evil. & god only good. how then is regeneration effected which turns the evil to good. by casting out the evil. by the good. See Matthew XII. Ch. 26. 27. 28. 29 vs
496. Sense seeks and finds the thought; the thought seeks and finds genius.
& vice. versa. genius finds thought without seekg & thought thus, producd finds sense
[Begin Page 595] 506. The poet, who composes not before the moment of inspiration, and as that leaves him ceases--composes, and he alone, for all men, all classes, all ages.
507. He, who has frequent moments of complete existence, is a hero, though not laurelled, is crowned, and without crowns, a king: he only who has enjoyed immortal moments can reproduce them.
O that men would seek immortal moments O that men would converse with God
508. The greater that which you can HIDE, THE GREATER YOURSELF.(The last words triply underlined by Blake)
X514. He, who cannot forgive <a>trespass of malice to his enemy, has never yet tasted the most sublime enjoyment of love.
uneasy this I know not
X518. You may have hot enemies without having a warm friend; but not a fervid friend without a bitter enemy. The qualities of your friends will be those of your enemies: cold friends, cold enemies--half friends, half enemies--fervid enemies, warm friends.
very Uneasy indeed but truth
521. He, who reforms himself, has done more toward reforming the public than a crowd of noisy, impotent patriots.
523. He will do great things who can avert his words and thoughts from past irremediable evils.
.not if evils are past sins. for these a man should never avert his thoughts from
X526. He, who is ever intent on great ends, has an eagle-eye for great means, and scorns not the smallest.
Great ends never look at means but produce them spontaneously
532. Take from LUTHER* his roughness and fiery courage; from CALVIN his hectic obstinacy; from ERASMUS his timid prudence; hypocrisy and fanaticism from CROMWELL; from HENRY IV, his sanguine character; mysticism from FENELON; from HUME his all-unhinging wit; love of paradox and brooding suspicion from ROUSSEAU; naivete and elegance of knavery from VOLTAIRE; from MILTON the extravagance of his all-personifying fancy; from RAFFAELLE his dryness and nearly hard precision; and from RUBENS his supernatural luxury of colours:--deduct this oppressive EXUBERANCE from each; rectify them according to your own taste--what will be the result? your own correct, pretty, flat, useful--for me, to be sure, quite convenient vulgarity. And why this amongst maxims of humanity? that you may learn to know this EXUBERANCE, this LEVEN, of each great character, and its effects on contemporaries and posterity--that you may know where d, e, f, is, there must be a, b, c: he alone has knowledge of man, who knows the ferment that raises each character, and makes it that which it shall be, and something more or less than it shall be.
Deduct from a rose its redness. from a lilly its whiteness from a diamond its hardness from a spunge its softness from an oak its heighth from a daisy its lowness & [chaos] rectify every thing in Nature as the Philosophers do. & then we shall return to Chaos& God will be compelld to be Excentric if he Creates O happy Philosopher
Variety does not necessarily suppose deformity, for a rose &a lilly. are various. & both beautiful
Beauty is exuberant but not of ugliness but of beauty & if ugliness is adjoined
[Begin Page 596] to beauty it is not the exuberance of beauty. so if Rafael is hard & dry it is not his genius but an accident acquired for how can Substance & Accident be predicated of the same Essence! I cannot concieve
But the substance gives tincture to the accident & makes it physiognomic
Aphorism 47. speaks of the heterogeneous, which all extravagance is. but exuberance not.
(47: Man has an inward sense of consequence--of all that is pertinent. This sense is the essence of humanity: this, developed and determined, characterises him--this, displayed, is his education. The more strict you are in observing what is pertinent and impertinent, (or heterogeneous) in character, actions, works of art and literature--the wiser, nobler, greater, the more humane yourself.)
533. I have often, too often, been tempted, at the daily relation of new knaveries, to despise human nature in every individual, till, on minute anatomy of each trick, I found that the knave was only an ENTHUSIAST or MOMENTARY FOOL. This discovery of momentary folly, symptoms of which assail the wisest and the best, has thrown a great consolatory light on my inquiries into man's moral nature: by this the theorist is enabled to assign to each class and each individual its own peculiar fit of vice or folly; and, by the same, he has it in his power to contrast the ludicrous or dismal catalogue with the more pleasing one of sentiment and virtue, more properly their own.
man is the ark of God the mercy seat is above upon the ark cherubims guard it on either side & in the midst is the holy law. man is either the ark of God or a phantom of the earth & of the water if thou seekest by human policy to guide this ark. remember Uzzah II Sam l. [erasure] VI Ch:
knaveries are not human nature knaveries are knaveries See N 554
this aphorism seems to me to want discrimination
534. He, who is the master of the fittest moment to crush his enemy, and magnanimously neglects it, is born to be a conqueror.
this was old George the second
539. A great woman not imperious, a fair woman not vain, a woman of common talents not jealous, an accomplished woman, who scorns to shine--are four wonders, just great enough to be divided among the four quarters of the globe.
let the men do their duty & the women will be such wonders, the female life [fro]lives from the light of the male. see a mans female dependants you know the man
543. Depend not much upon your rectitude, if you are uneasy in the presence of the good;
[Line drawn by Blake]
X nor trust to your humility if you are mortified when you are not noticed.
549. He, who [hates]<loves>the wisest and best of men, [hates]<loves>the Father of men; for where is the Father of men to be seen but in the most perfect of his children?
this is true worship
552. He, who adores an impersonal God, has none; and, without guide or rudder, launches on an immense abyss that first absorbs his powers, and next himself.
Most superlatively beautiful & Most affectionatly Holy & pure would to God that all men would consider it
[Begin Page 597] 554. The enemy of art is the enemy of nature; art is nothing but the highest sagacity and exertion of human nature; and what nature will he honour who honours not the human?
human nature is the image of God
556. Where there is much pretension, much has been borrowed--nature never pretends
557. Do you think him a common man who can make what is common exquisite?
559. Whose promise may you depend upon? his who dares refuse what he knows he cannot perform; who promises calmly, strictly, conditionally, and never excites a hope which he may disappoint.
560. You promise as you speak.
562. Avoid him who speaks softly, and writes sharply.
Ah rogue I could be thy hangman
566. Neither patience nor inspiration can give wings to a snail--you waste your own force, you destroy what remained of energy in the indolent, by urging him to move beyond his rate of power.
573. Your humility is equal to your desire of being unnoticed, unobserved in your acts of virtue.
574. There are certain light characteristic momentary features of man, which, in spite of masks and all exterior mummery, represent him as he is and shall be. If once in an individual you have discovered one ennobling feature, let him debase it, let it at times shrink from him, no matter; he will, in the end, prove superior to thousands of his critics.
the wise man falleth 7 times in a day & riseth again &c
576. The man who has and uses but one scale for every thing, for himself and his enemy, the past and the future, the grand and the trifle, for truth and error, virtue and vice, religion, superstition, infidelity; for nature, art, and works of genius and art-is truly wise, just, great.
this is most true but how does this agree with 451
X577. The infinitely little constitutes the infinite difference in works of art, and in the degrees of morals and religion; the greater the rapidity; precision, acuteness, with which this is observed and determined, the more authentic, the greater the observer.
582. Никакое общение, никакие его дары не могут истощить гения, или щедрость его благодеяний.
585. Не доверяй себе, если боишься взглянуть в глаза искренности; но не бойся ни Бога, ни человека, если у тебя нет причины не доверять себе.
590. Тот знает себя прекрасно, кто никогда не противоречит своему гению. В высшей степени замечательно.
606. Общество редко прощает дважды. давайте возьмём это за образец.
610. Все великие умы благожелательны
X624. Глупец отделяет свой предмет от всего, что его окружает; любое абстрагирование есть временное недомыслие. Смущает. Потому что когда-то я думал по-другому, но теперь я знаю, что это Правда.
630. Бог находитсся во всём – в любом нашем собеседнике или друге, ибо наш Бог сам сказал: ты мой брат, моя сестра и моя мать, и т. д., см. Св. Иоанна. Кто пребывает в Любви, пребывает в Боге, и Бог пребывает в нём; и никто не может судить ни о ком другом иначе, чем в любви, и его чувства будут симпатией или отторжением. ...каждое слово на земле это слово Божье, и по сути является Богом.
631. Гений всегда даёт своё лучшее в первую очередь, благоразумие — в последнюю.
С. 224—6. (написано на чистыах страницах в конце I тома). Я думаю, никто не будет называть кляузами то, что я здесь написал, потому что, как это можно подумать, мои заметки не должны иметь серьёзных последствий. Но поскольку я пишу от всего сердца, я не могу противится импульсу чувства, которое живёт во мне, исправить то, что я считаю ошибочным в книге, которую я так люблю, и принимаю в целом.
Человек плох или хорош в зависимости от того с какими духами он объединяется, с плохими или хорошими. Скажи мне с кем ты идёшь, и я скажу тебе что ты собой представляешь. ...эта книга написана в результате общения с Добрыми Духами, и потому является Добром; и само имя Лафатера — амулет для очищющих сердце человека.
Однако имеется серьёзное возражение принципам Лафатера (в том, как я их понимаю), считающего, что каждая вещь появляется в результате случайности... Случайность — это отсутствия действия, с одной стороны, и препятствие действию, — с другой. Это Зло, зато в любом Действии заключена Добродетель. Препятствовать другому не означает действовать; напротив, это ограничивает действие нас самих и человека, которому мы препятствуем, ибо человек, препятствующий другому, одновременно упускает собственное время. Убийство — это Препятствие для Другого. Воровство — это Препятствие для Другого. Клевета, Тайный Обман, и всё тому подобное является Негативным и является Пороком. Но источник ошибки Лафатера и его современников в том, что они считают Любовь Женщины Грехом, в результате чего вся их Любовь и Благоволение к женщине оказывается Грехом.
Как и советовал читателям Лафатер, Блейк решил показать свои заметки «тому, кто ему приятен». Этим человеком оказался Фюзели, который, прочитав блейковские аннотации, сказал, что «по ним можно с уверенностью определить характер того, кто их писал».
580. Range him high amongst your saints, who, with all-acknowledged powers, and his own stedfast scale for every thing, can, on the call of judgment or advice, submit to transpose himself into another's situation, and to adopt his point of sight.
582. No communications and no gifts can exhaust genius, or impoverish charity.
585. Distrust yourself if you fear the eye of the sincere; but be afraid of neither God or man, if you have no reason to distrust yourself.
586. Who comes as he goes, and is present as he came and went, is sincere.
X588. He loves grandly (I speak of friendship) who is not jealous when he has partners of love.
uneasy but I hope to mend
590. He knows himself greatly who never opposes his genius.
[Begin Page 598] 596 "Love as if you could hate and might be hated;"--a maxim of detested prudence in real friendship, the bane of all tenderness, the death of all familiarity. Consider the fool who follows it as nothing inferior to him who at every, bit of bread trembles at the thought of its being poisoned.
597. "Hate as if you could love or should be loved;"--him who follows this maxim, if all the world were to declare an idiot and enthusiast, I shall esteem, of all men, the most eminently formed for friendship.
Better than Excellent
600. Distinguish with exactness, if you mean to know yourself and others, what is so often mistaken--the SINGULAR, the ORIGINAL, the EXTRAORDINARY, the GREAT, and the SUBLIME man: the SUBLIME alone unites the singular, original, extraordinary, and great, with his own uniformity and simplicity: the GREAT, with many powers, and uniformity of ends, is destitute of that superior calmnessand inward harmony which soars above the atmosphere of praise: the EXTRAORDINARY is distinguished by copiousness, and a wide range of energy: the ORIGINAL need not be very rich, onlythat which he produces is unique, and has the exclusive stamp of individuality: the SINGULAR, as such, is placed between originality and whim, and often makes a trifle the medium of fame.
601. Forwardness nips affection in the bud.
the more is the pity
X602. If you mean to be loved, give more than what is asked, but not more than what is wanted; [and ask less than what is expected.]
this is human policy as it is calld--this whole aphorism is an oversight
603. Whom smiles and [tears]<frowns>make equally lovely, [all]<only good>hearts [may]<can or dare>court.
604. Take here the grand secret--if not of pleasing all, yet of displeasing none--court mediocrity, avoid originality, and sacrifice to fashion.
& go to hell
605. He who pursues the glimmering steps of hope, with stedfast, not presumptuous, eye, may pass the gloomy rock, on either side of which [superstition]<hypocrisy>and incredulity their dark abysses spread.
Superstition has been long a bug bear by reason of its being united with hypocrisy. but let them be fairly seperated & then superstition will be honest feeling & God who loves all honest men. will lead [them]the poor enthusiast in the paths of holiness
606. The public seldom forgive twice.
let us take their example
X607. Him who is hurried on by the furies of immature, impetuous wishes, stern repentance shall drag, bound and reluctant, back to the place from which he sallied: where you hear the crackling of wishes expect intolerable vapours or repining grief.
608. He submits to be seen through a microscope, who suffers himself to be caught in a fit of passion.
& such a one I dare love
609. Venerate four characters; the sanguine, who has checked volatility and the rage for pleasure; the choleric, who has subdued passion and pride; the phlegmatic, emerged from indolence; and the melancholy, who has dismissed avarice, suspicion, and asperity.
4 most holy men
[Begin Page 599] 610. All great minds sympathize.
612. Men carry their character not seldom in their pockets: you night decide on more than half of your acquaintance, had you will or right to turn their pockets inside out.
I seldom carry money in my pockets they are generally full of paper [for(6 or 7 words erased)]
615. Not he who forces himself on opportunity, but he who watches its approach, and welcomes its arrival by immediate use, is wise.
616. Love and hate are the genius of invention, the parents of virtue and of vice--forbear to decide on yourself till you have had opportunities of warm attachment or deep dislike.
X619. Each heart is a world of nations, classes, and individuals; full of friendships, enmities, indifferences; . . . the number and character of your friends within bears an exact resemblance to your external ones; . . . Be assured then, that to know yourself perfectly you have only to set down a true statement of those that ever loved or hated you.
uneasy because I cannot do this
623. Avoid connecting yourself with characters whose good and bad sides are unmixed, and have not fermented together; they resemble phials of vinegar and oil, or pallets set with colours: they are either excellent at home and intolerable abroad, or insufferable within doors and excellent in public; they are unfit for friendship, merely because their stamina, their ingredients of character, are too single, too much apart; let them be finely ground up with each other, and they will be incomparable.
X624. The fool separates his object from all surrounding ones; all abstraction is temporary folly.
uneasy because I once thought otherwise but now know it is Truth
626. Let me repeat it--He only is great who has the habits of greatness; who, after performing what none in ten thousand could accomplish, passes on, like Samson, and "TELLS NEITHER FATHER NOR MOTHER OF IT."
This is Excellent
630. A GOD, an ANIMAL, a PLANT, are not companions of man; nor is the FAULTLESS--then judge with lenity of all; the coolest, wisest, best, all without exception, have their points, their moments of enthusiasm, fanaticism, absence of mind, faint-heartedness, stupidity--if you allow not for these, your criticisms on man will be a mass of accusations or caricatures.
It is the God in allthat is our companion & friend, for our God himself says, you are my brother my sister & my mother; & St John. Whoso dwelleth in love dwelleth in God & God in him. & such an one cannot judge of any but in love. & his feelings will be attractions or repulses
See Aphorisms 549 & 554
God is in the lowest effects as well as in the highest causes for he is become a worm that he may nourish the weak
For let it be rememberd that creation is. God descending according to the weakness of man for our Lord is the word of God & every thing on earth is the word of God & in its essence is God
631. Genius always gives its best at first, prudence at last.
633. You think to meet with some additions here to your stock of moral knowledge--and not in vain, I hope: but know, a great many rules cannot be given by him who means not to offend, and many of mine have perhaps offended already;
[Begin Page 600] Those who are offended [bu]with any thing in this book would be offended with the innocence of a child & for the same reason. because it reproaches him with the errors of acquired folly.
believe me, for him who has an open ear and eye, every minute teems with observations of precious import, yet scarcely communicable to the most faithful friend; so incredibly weak, so vulnerable in certain points, is man: forbear to meddle with these at your first setting out, and make amusement the minister of reflection: sacrifice all egotism--sacrifice ten points to one, if that one have the value of twenty; and if you are happy enough to impress your disciple with respect for himself, with probability of success in his exertions of growing better; and, above all, with the idea of your disinterestedness--you may perhaps succeed in making one proselyte to virtue.
635. Keep your heart from him who begins his acquaintance with you by indirect flattery of your favourite paradox or foible.
unless you find it to be his also. previous to your acquaintance
636. Receive no satisfaction for premeditated impertinence--forget it, forgive it--but keep him inexorably at a distance who offered it.
This is a paradox
X638. Let the cold, who offers the nauseous mimickry of warm affection, meet with what be deserves--a repulse; but from that moment depend on his irreconcilable enmity.
uneasy because I do not know how to do this but I will try to [xxxx] do it the first opportunity
640. The moral enthusiast, who in the maze of his refinements loses or despises the plain paths of honesty and duty, is on the brink of crimes.
[ [p224] End of Vol. 1. ] I hope no one will call what I have written cavilling because he may think my remarks of small consequence For I write from the warmth of my heart. & cannot resist the impulse I feel to rectify what I think false in a book I love so much. & approve so generally
[ [p225, blank] ] Man is bad or good. as he unites himself with bad or good spirits. tell me with whom you go & Ill tell you what you do
As we cannot experience pleasure but by means of others. [ As we are]who experience either pleasure or pain thro us. And as all of us on earth are united in thought, for it is impossible to think without images of somewhat on earth--So it is impossible to know God or heavenly things without conjunction with those who know God & heavenly things. therefore, all who converse in the spirit, converse with spirits. [& these are either Good or Evil]
For these reasons I say that this Book is written by consultation with Good Spirits because it is Good. & that the name Lavater. is the amulet of those who purify the heart of man.
[ [p 226, blank] ] There is a strong objection to Lavaters principles (as I understand them) & that is He makes every thing originate in its accident he makes the
[Begin Page 601] vicious propensity <not only>a leading feature of the man but the Stamina on which all his virtues grow. But as I understand Vice it is a Negative--It does not signify what the laws of Kings & Priests have calld Vice we who are philosophers ought not to call the Staminal Virtues of Humanity by the same name that we call the omissions of intellect springing from poverty
Every mans <leading>propensity ought to be calld his leading Virtue & his good Angel But the Philosophy of Causes & Consequences misled Lavater as it has all his cotemporaries. Each thing is its own cause & its own effect Accident is the omission of act in self & the hindering of act in another, This is Vice but all Act [<from Individual propensity>] is Virtue. To hinder another [P 227, blank] is not an act it is the contrary it is a restraint on action both in ourselves & in the person hinderd. for he who hinders another omits his own duty. at the time
Murder is Hindering Another
Theft is Hindering Another
Backbiting. Undermining C[i]rcumventing & whatever is Negative is Vice
But the or[i]gin of this mistake in Lavater & his cotemporaries, is, They suppose that Womans Love is Sin. in consequence all the Loves & Graces with them are Sin
- Я не вполне понимаю смысл этой ремарки. ДС
Большая часть цитируемого текста Лафатера приведена в полном объеме, но отрывки из других аннотированных сочинений были сокращены до минимума, необходимого, чтобы показать непосредственный контекст заметок Блейка. Названия, приводимые ниже, упрощены.
Most of the Lavater cited are given in full, but excerpts from the other works annotated have been trimmed to the bare minimum necessary to show the immediate context of Blake's remarks. Titles given below are somewhat simplified.
Копия с аннотациями Блейка находится в Huntington Library (HM 57431). Фронтиспис, гравюры подписан "Blake SC [ulpsit]", объявляет цель книги в качестве руководства самопознания:
, Вступительный реклама датированы маем 1788 и книга была опубликована в ближайшее время, для обзоров в Лондоне журналов за июнь и июль были обнаружены Ричард Дж Shroyer. (Я использовал ошибочную дату публикации 1789 года, данное в жизни Джон Ноулз о Fuseli.)
Блейк получил свою копию несвязанными и сделал свои заметки так быстро, что чернила промоканием на соседних листьях, шапкой из надлежащего порядка. Несколько запоздалые были написаны карандашом: те, на пп 287 и 384 вероятно, Блейк;. "Восхитительный!" на № 20 и "No путаник Kisses" на No. 503 двумя различными авторами, вероятно, друзей, которым Блейк показал свою отмеченную копию, как указано в № 643.
Кто-то, вероятно, Блейк сам, сделал шесть существенных поправок, к которым призвала страницы Исправления для коррекции "команду" на "команды", "кому" до "кто", "тонкость" до "угрюмость", "мудрый", чтобы "изобилующего "(не замечая, что перечисленное слово является еще одной ошибкой" созрел ", слова к которому призвал смысле), и вставить статью, но игнорировала восемь коррекции орфографии и пунктуации указали.
На титульном листе Блейк написал и подчеркнул свою подпись, "Willm Блейка", под напечатанной "Лафатер", а затем заключены два имени в общих чертах сердца. Он также вписан равнина "будет. Блейк "в верхней части страницы 1.
Переход на пустой странице  Теперь дается как "с духами. [Они являются либо добро или зло] "был ошибочно читается как" с духами. [& Они общаться с духом Бога] ". Предложение Бентли (р 1386) привело к reinspection из мс.
The copy with Blake's annotations is in the Huntington Library (HM 57431). The frontispiece, an engraving signed “Blake sc[ulpsit]”, announces the book's purpose as a manual of self-discovery:
. The prefatory Advertisement is dated May 1788, and the book was soon published, for reviews in London magazines for June and July have been discovered by Richard J. Shroyer. (I had been using the erroneous publication date of 1789 given in John Knowles's Life of Fuseli.)
Blake obtained his copy unbound and made his notes so rapidly that the ink was blotted off on adjacent leaves, heaped out of proper order. A few afterthoughts were written in pencil: those on Nos. 287 and 384 probably by Blake; an “Admirable!” on No. 20 and “No fumbler Kisses” on No. 503 by two different writers, probably friends to whom Blake showed his marked copy as instructed in No. 643.
Someone, probably Blake himself, made the six substantive corrections called for by the page of Errata—correcting “command” to “commands”, “whom” to “who”, “subtleness” to “sullenness”, “wise” to “rife” (not noticing that the listed word is another mistake for “ripe”, the word called for by the sense), and inserting an article—but ignored the eight corrections of punctuation and spelling indicated.
On the title page Blake wrote and underlined his signature, “Willm Blake”, beneath the printed “Lavater”, and then enclosed the two names in an outline of a heart. He also inscribed plain “Will. Blake” at the top of page 1.
The passage on blank page  now given as “with Spirits. [these are either Good or Evil]” had been mistakenly read as “with Spirits. [& they converse with the spirit of God]”. Bentley's suggestion ( p 1386) led to a reinspection of the ms.
- Annotations to A Treatise concerning Heaven and Hell, and of the Wonderful Things therein, as Heard and Seen, by Emanuel Swedenborg. Translated [by William Cookworthy and Thomas Hartley] from the Original Latin. Second Edition. London
- Printed by R. Hindmarsh, No. 32, Clerkenwell-Close; London, 1784
The copy with Blake's annotations (following someone else's) is in the Houghton Library, Harvard College Library. The work was advertised July 8, 1784., in the . Blake's notes were not made before 1787 (see next paragraph).
513. †See N 73 Worlds in Universe.] A reference to No. 73 in another Swedenborg pamphlet, of which the first English translation was that of J. Clowes, Manchester, 1787: . “Worlds in the Universe” was apparently an alternative title to the same edition (see Morton Paley in Blake . . . Quarterly 13  87).
- Annotations to , by Emanuel Swedenborg. Translated [by N. Tucker] from the Original Latin. London, 1788
The copy with Blake's annotations is in the British Library. The penciled paragraphs on the flyleaf have been badly rubbed or erased, possibly not intentionally; the words supplied within brackets are conjectural. The flyleaf note cannot have been written before 1790, since the reference to “Wisdom 10” is to the work next listed.
238. See N 239] written over the first words of an erased note: These Are / For the degree x x [or: First in degree x x ?] / xxxx state[d] / [?in] his note / [N.] 239.”
This erasure was called to my attention by John McLean, who hesitates beyond these words as certain: “There Are / the degree / state / Do”.
- Annotations to , by Emanuel Swedenborg. Translated [by N. Tucker] from the Latin. London, 1790
The copy with Blake's annotations is in the collection of Sir Geoffrey Keynes.
- Annotations to . By R. Watson, D.D. F.R.S. Lord Bishop of Landaff, and Regius Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge. Eighth Edition. London
- Printed for T. Evans, in Paternoster Row. 1797
The copy with Blake's annotations is in the Huntington Library (HM 11O260).
Blake's second line (“The Beast & the Whore . . .”) is canceled by a ruled double line, in pencil, uncharacteristic of Blake. I take it to have been added by Samuel Palmer, whose signature, partly erased, is on the title page.
- Annotations to , by Francis Bacon. London, 1798
The copy with Blake's annotations is in the collection of Sir Geoffrey Keynes.
In the quoted excerpts Bacon's colons and semicolons are treated as full stops.
PAGE i Per WILLIAM BLAKE] A curious phrase-until one sees it on many Italian title pages; one might say that this is Blake being Florentine.
PAGE 82 Bacons Reformer Villain] A caret in the note, between “Bacons” and “Villain”, points to the word “Reformer”, in the line above, indicating its repetition here. (Suggestion of Sir Geoffrey Keynes.)
- Annotations to . By Henry Boyd. 2 vols. Dublin, 1785
The copy with Blake's annotations is in the collection of Sir Geoffrey Keynes, who first located the volume in 1956. Blake's comments are confined to two of Boyd's , in Volume 1. In the translation of the someone (not Blake) corrected two printer's errors (on Page 207 changing “wandring son” to “wandrings on” and on page 326 changing “louban” to “Soul an”) and a translator's error (on page 193 changing “His” to “Her”). Blake added the Italian above the English text on page 189: Nel mezzo del cummin de nostra vita.
Annotations to Volume I of The Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds, Knight; Late President of the Royal Academy: . . . (with his last corrections and additions,) [and] An Account of the Life and Writings of the Author, By Edmond Malone. The second edition corrected. 3 vols. London, 1798 The copy with Blake's annotations is in the British Museum; with it are unmarked copies of Volumes 2 and 3 in the same (modern) binding.
This volume contains Malone's Account and the first eight of Reynolds' fifteen Discourses. The Discourses were not unknown to Blake, but this may have been his first opportunity to read them all. The first had been delivered at the opening of the Royal Academy, January 2, 1769, the others at the nearly annual distribution of prizes to students, from 1769 to 1790. In 1779, the year Blake entered the Academy schools, there was no discourse, but he may possibly have heard one or both of the Ninth and Tenth Discourses given in 1780. Each Discourse was currently printed for limited circulation; a collection of the first seven was published in 1778, but the next (and complete) English edition was Malone's first, in 1797.
Blake's notes were written first in pencil and later, with erasures and additions, in ink. Differences (here noted for the first time) between pencil and ink versions are treated as deletions and additions. Notes in pencil only, but unerased, are not distinguished from notes which are identical in pencil and ink; notes in ink only are treated as additions. Words partly trimmed away in binding but still legible are treated as complete. (The unerased pencil entries are those on pp ix, xxxiv, lx, xcvi, civ, cxx, 3, 5, 13, 48, 61, 67, 75, 180, 209, 245, 251, 256, 260, 262, 264, 266, 267, 272, 274, 275, 277, 281, 284, 285.)
Date : ca l798-1809. The assumption that these marginalia are all of one kind written all at one tine has resulted in the usual dating of them circa 1808, from the close relation of some of them to satires in Blake's Notebook made before and perhaps while he was writing his of 1809. But as early as November 22, 1802, he invoked the authority of “All Sir J Reynoldss discourses” in a letter to Thomas Butts, emphasizing particularly Reynolds' admission of incompatibility between “Venetian finesse” and “the Majesty of Colouring” necessary to historical painting (Blake's kind)-an admission Blake pounces on in Discourse IV (see marginalia on pp 89, go, 94., and especially 97).
Keynes (p 908) speaks of “the notes on the other volumes” as “being in the Note-Book with other epigrams, etc., relating to events which took place about the year 1808”. This derives from a note in Sampson's edition of Blake (p 318) referring to verse epigrams, not prose notes, and inspired by Sampson's discovery that two Notebook satires on page 33 constitute Blake's response to the concluding words of Reynolds' fifteenth and last Discourse (1790, in Vol 2): “I should desire that the last words which I should pronounce in this Academy . . . might be the name of Michael Angelo.”
Reynolds . . . hid) Then while Reynolds & Gainsborough prxxx & dxxx themselves xxxxx xxx [be]came the lords dxxxx Fuseli Indignant hid himself. erased pencil rdg
Why . . . Venetians] Why are Venetians treated more ?kindly [?and ?with ?more] Enthusiasm ?Whenever Reynolds ?talks of colouring . . . a Greater colourist would . . . erased pencil rdg
Are there . . . Men] pencil, underneath the inked verses
Artists &c] Blake is probably rejecting the concept of art as progressive; see 226, 231.
3 Farthings] followed by two erased pencil lines
i.e. . . . Determinate] ?they ?excell both in minute & Discriminating Determination pencil rdg erased
The boys who take shadow for substance are a probable source for Blake's verses on the “dog” or “Puppy” who “lost shadow & substance too” in N 61 and 97. (See page 516.)
the Little Bacon] Note that three of the six comments on Bacon (this one and those on pages 31 and 147) were never inked (Blake's way of confirming his earlier penciled text).
Is Fashion . . . Art] Erased probably because Blake saw that he had misread Reynolds' who, on p 66, rules that “fashion . . . must be entirely excluded from the Art of Painting”.
The next erasure, of his comment on p 71, may mean that Blake realized he had picked up the term “nobler” in a mistaken sense.
Caesar . . . Dutch Painter] Blake is quoting Bacon, .
Damned Fool] The fool is either Vasari, for his anecdote, or Reynolds, for making an absurd deduction.
Men who] Reynolds is summing up for Durer, Coypel, Jan Steen; Blake for Mortimer, Barry, Fuseli, and himself.
Ratio] first written Ration
- Annotations to , by J. G. Spurzheim. London, 1817
The copy with Blake's annotations has not been located since the transcription by Ellis and Yeats, which is relied upon here (with removal of uncharacteristic punctuation).
- Annotations to By G[eorge] [Berkeley] L[ord] B[ishop] 0[f] C[loyne]. Dublin, 1744
The copy with Blake's annotations is in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge; freshly collated July 1981.
- Annotations to Volume I of by William Wordsworth. 2 vols. London, 1815
The copy with Blake's marginalia (written in 1826) is in the Cornell, University Library. Blake's notes in pencil were inked over, probably by H. Crabb Robinson, who owned the volume-and who may have put the X's in the list of contents before he lent it to Blake. Robinson's list, on the fly leaf, of pages containing “notes written by Blake in pencil” includes “4” (a page now lacking annotation).
PAGE 44 Michael Angelos Sonnet vol 2 p. 179] Blake is citing Wordsworth's translation; he quotes it in his inscription in William Upcott's album. q.v.
PAGE 375 opinions of . . . a Landscape Painter] The “Landscape Painter” comes out in Wordsworth's contempt for poetry that “does not contain a single new image of external nature” or evidence “that the eye of the Poet had been steadily fixed upon his object” (paragraph 20) as well as in his faulting Macpherson for using imagery inappropriate to the actual “Morven before his eyes” (p 364). The Preface, from p I on, assumes “memory” to be the supplier of “materials” for the production of poetry.
- Annotations to the Preface to , by William Wordsworth. London, 1814
Blake's transcript and comment (in 1826) on Wordsworth's Preface and the lines quoted there from are in Dr Williams's Library, London.
Blake made few mistakes in copying-“unpleasant” for “unpleasing” (a word he never used), “Whensoeer” for “whencesoe'er” (neither a Blakean word), and two wrong prepositions-but he simplified punctuation and insisted on his own spellings: perceive, mixd, subdud, tho, askd, unalarmd, scoopd, composd, meer (for mere), chaunt (for chant), calld, inflamd, inspirest (for inspir'st), starlike (for star-like), and probably chear for cheer (though Blake actually wrote “cheear”). He capitalized rather heavily: Wordsworth's “good and evil of our mortal state” became “Good & Evil of our Mortal State”, and Blake insisted on capitalizing Law Supreme, Earth, Heaven, and “Worlds To which the Heaven of Heavens is but a Veil”, also “darkest Pit” and “Song”; but he resisted several of Wordsworth's capitals, turning “prophetic Spirit! that inspir'st / The human Soul of universal earth” to “Prophetic Spirit that inspirest / The Human soul of Universal Earth”. Similar reversals of case were: “illumination,—may my Life” to “Illumination may my life” and “My Heart . . . thy unfailing love” to “My heart . . . thy unfailing Love”.
- Annotations to , by Robert John Thornton, M.D. of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Member of the Royal London College of Physicians. [London] 1827
The copy with Blake's annotations is iii the Huntington Library (HM 113086). Some pages lack numbers, and the leaves are loose, easily getting out of order. For the present edition the inferred sequence and pagination have been corrected, and some readings have been corrected, thanks to the scrutiny of Robert N. Essick.
- Annotation to Cellini(?)
The volume containing this note has not been located; it was quoted by Edwin J. Ellis, , London 1907, p 420, as found “in the margin of a copy of Cennini's book on fresco painting that Linnell lent to Blake”. From Gilchrist's , Chapter 39, Ellis would have known that John Linnell “gave to Blake” “the first copy of Cennino Cennini's book seen in England”. But there is simply nothing in that book that could have inspired a remark about the Pope and the Virgin. What Blake, according to Linnell, found in it was that “he had been using the same materials and methods in painting as Cennini describes-particularly the carpenter's glue”. The book is devoted to materials and methods throughout.
But Ellis was notoriously inaccurate. Knowing of the Cennini book and confusing a tractate by Cellini with a tractate by Cennini, he can easily have attributed the marginal note to the wrong work. (Several Cellini editions were available; there was no English translation.)
On Nature's incapacity to bear, see Blake's assertion that “This World is too poor to produce one Seed” (Annotation to Reynolds, p 157). Harold Bloom suggests that the allegory of “Faith, Hope, and Charity” signified the vegetable glass of Nature to Blake because St Paul speaks of seeing through a glass, darkly, in the verse of I Corinthians preceding that naming Faith, Hope, Charity.
- Annotation to , by Edward Young (1743) Night the Fifth, line 735.
The watercolor is designated NT 199, its place in the series. Prints and Drawings Room, British Museum. Titles on the spines of books shown in Blake's drawing correspond to the following eighteenth-century titles:
(1) Plato, ; (2) Cicero, ; (3) Plutarchi Chaeronei (Plutarch of Chaeronea),