Мемуары отца о своём дитя (Малкин)
|Мемуары отца о своём дитя
, пер. Д. Смирнов-Садовский (р.1948)
|Язык оригинала: английский. Название в оригинале: A Father's Memoirs of his Child. — Дата создания: 1806, пер. 2012, опубл.: 1806. Источник: частные архивы|
Надеюсь, нет необходимости обращать ваше внимание в оформлении книги на портрет на фронтисписе, но я не могу так просто воздержаться от того, чтобы представить вам художника.
Мистер Уильям Блейк в самом начале своей жизни мог видеть произведения живописи, как правило, лишь в домах благородных людей и господ, или в королевских дворцах. Вскоре он углубил свои такие случайные познания, посещая распродажи в залах Лэнгфорда, Кристи и другие аукционы. В десять лет его отдали в рисовальную школу мистера Парса на Стрэнде, где он вскоре достиг успехов в искусстве рисования с гипсовых моделей различных произведений античности. Его отец купил для него Гладиатора, Геркулеса, Венеру Медицейскую, а также слепки различных голов, рук и ног. Тот же снисходительный родитель вскоре снабдил его деньгами, для покупки гравюр; и он сразу же начал собирать коллекцию, часто посещая магазины гравюр и аукционные распродажи. Лэнгфорд прозвал его своим маленьким знатоком и часто по-дружески значительно сбавлял для него цену. Блейк копировал Рафаэля и Микеланджело, Мартен ван Хемскерка и Альбрехта Дюрера, Хулио Романо, и других старых мастеров такого же класса, пренебрегая покупкой гравюр любых других художников, хотя бы и модных. Его выбор по большей части вызывал презрение его молодых товарищей, привыших смеяться над его «механистическим вкусом», как они это называли. В возрасте четырнадцати лет он сконцентрировался на гравировании «Афин» Стюарта и «Пилада и Ореста» Уэста для своего мастера, у которого он находился в услужении семь лет. Бэйзайр, чей вкус был таким же как и у него, одобрил его работу. Два года прошло достаточно гладко, пока не появились два других ученика, полностью разрушивших эту гармонию. Блейк, решивший не объединяться со своим мастером против своих соучеников, был отослан, чтобы делать рисунки на стороне. Это обстоятельство Блейк всегда упоминает с благодарностью Бэйзайру, который сказал ему, что он был слишком прост, а те – слишком хитры.
Блейка использовали в работе над созданием рисунков старинных зданий и памятников, а иногда, особенно зимой, в изготовлении гравюр с этих рисунков. Благодаря этой работе он познакомился с произведениями искусства, называемыми готическими памятниками. В них он нашёл сокровище, которое умел оценить. Он увидел простой и ясный путь к стилю искусства, к которому стремился, свободному от хитросплетений современной художественной практики. Памятники королям и королевам в Вестминстерском аббатстве вокруг капеллы Эдуарда Исповедника, в частности, Генриху III, красивый памятник и фигура королевы Элинор, памятники королеве Филиппе, королю Эдуарду III, королю Ричарду II и королеве, были среди первых сюжетов его работ. Всё это он изобразил в малейших подробностях, часто вставая на памятник, и глядя на фигуры сверху. Лица на памятниках он рассматривал как портреты; а все орнаменты представлялись его воображению, пропитанному вкусом к готике, чудом искусства. Затем он изобразил памятник Аймера де Валенса, с его прекрасной фигурой сверху. Те изысканные фигуры, что его окружают, хотя ужасно и обветшали, по-прежнему могут служить моделями для изучения драпировки. Но я не собираюсь перечислять все его рисунки, так как мне придётся назвать все старые памятники в Вестминстерском аббатстве, так же как и в других церквях Лондона и его предместий.
Такова была его работа у Бэйзайра. Как только у него находилось свободное время, он трудился над гравированием двух сюжетов из истории Англии, по рисункам, которые он сделал во время каникул между периодами обучения. Они были отобраны из большого числа исторических сюжетов, явившись плодами его собственной фантазии. Он продолжал делать рисунки для своего удовольствия, когда мог выкрасть момент от рутины своей работы в качестве подмастерья; и начал курс обучения в Королевской Академии, под наблюдением мистера Мозера. Здесь он изобразил с большим тщанием, пожалуй, все, или почти все знаменитые античные фигуры с разных ракурсов. Но теперь его своеобразные взгляды начинают препятствовать его карьере. От утверждает, что рисование с натуры всегда было ненавистно ему, и говорит, об этом, словно это похоже на смерть, или имеет затхлый запах бренности. Тем не менее, до сих пор он нарисовал много с натуры, как в Академии, так и дома. Он использует свой талант в такой интенсивной манере, что уже сам чуть ли не стал готическим памятником. Оглядывая всю свою жизнь он по-прежнему считает себя уполномоченным заявить, что практика и предоставляемые возможности очень скоро учат языку искусства: но её дух и поэзия, которые находятся в воображении, есть то единственное, чему никогда нелья научить, и это создаёт художника.
Мистер Блейк давно известен в том кругу, к которому он относится, и высоко ценится теми, кто умеет отличить совершенства под личиной оригинальности. Полные энтузиазма и слишком высокопарные замечания его по поводу религии до сих пор, как правило, мешают воспринимать его как человека хорошего вкуса и сына муз. Скептик и рационально верующий, объединив свои усилия против визионерства, преследуют и стращают пылкую и яркую фантазию, с воплями и криками о безумии. Не удовлетворяясь низведением рассуждений мистического философа, как они это легко могут сделать, до уровня деградации, они применяют холодный расчёт и математические доказательства к тем разделам рассудка, которые имеют привилегию отвергнуть такую узость и строгость суждений. Они критикуют презентацию телесной красоты, и аллегорические эмблемы умственного совершенства, образ видимого мира, который апеллирует к чувствам свидетельствуя о его истинности, или род будущего существования и бессмертия души, который отождествляет себя с нашими надеждами и с нашими сердцами, как если бы они были силлогизмами или теоремами, очевидными положениями или последовательными выводами. Если бы они имели больше власти, они держали бы этого художника подальше от публики и привязали бы его гений насколько это возможно к технической части его профессии. Они, короче говоря, подвергли бы его публичному осуждению как гравировальщика, который мог бы продолжать свою деятельность более-менее сносно, если бы он не был сумасшедшим.
It is, I hope, unnecessary to call your attention to the ornamental device, round the portrait in this book; but I cannot so easily refrain from introducing to you the designer.
Mr. William Blake, very early in life, had the ordinary opportunities of seeing pictures in the houses of noblemen and gentlemen, and in the king's palaces. He soon improved such casual occasions of study, by attending sales at Langford's, Christie's, and other auction-rooms. At ten years of age he was put to Mr. Pars's drawing-school in the Strand, where he soon attained the art of drawing from casts in plaster of the various antiques. His father bought for him the Gladiator, the Hercules, the Venus of Medicis, and various heads, hands, and feet. The same indulgent parent soon supplied him with money to buy prints; when he immediately began his collection, frequenting the shops of the print-dealers, and the sales of the auctioneers. Langford called him his little connoisseur; and often knocked down to him a cheap lot, with friendly precipitation. He copied Raphael and Michael Angelo, Martin Hemskerck and Albert Durer, Julio Romano, and the rest of the historic class, neglecting to buy any other prints, however celebrated. His choice was for the most part contemned by his youthful companions, who were accustomed to laugh at what they called his mechanical taste. At the age of fourteen, he fixed on the engraver of Stuart's Athens and West's Pylades and Orestes for his master, to whom he served seven years apprenticeship. Basire, whose taste was like his own, approved of what he did. Two years passed over smoothly enough, till two other apprentices were added to the establishment, who completely destroyed its harmony. Blake, not chusing to take part with his master against his fellow apprentices, was sent out to make drawings. This circumstance he always mentions with gratitude to Basire, who said that he was too simple and they too cunning.
He was employed in making drawings from old buildings and monuments, and occasionally, especially in winter, in engraving from those drawings. This occupation led him to an acquaintance with those neglected works of art, called Gothic monuments. There he found a treasure, which he knew how to value. He saw the simple and plain road to the style of art at which he aimed, unentangled in the intricate windings of modern practice. The monuments of Kings and Queens in Westminster Abbey, which surround the chapel of Edward the Confessor, particularly that of King Henry the Third, the beautiful monument and figure of Queen Elinor, Queen Philippa, King Edward the Third, King Richard the Second and his Queen, were among his first studies. All these he drew in every point he could catch, frequently standing on the monument, and viewing the figures from the top. The heads he considered as portraits; and all the ornaments appeared as miracles of art, to his Gothicised imagination. He then drew Aymer de Valence's monument, with his fine figure on the top. Those exquisite little figures which surround it, though dreadfully mutilated, are still models for the study of drapery. But I do not mean to enumerate all his drawings, since they would lead me over all the old monuments in Westminster Abbey, as well as over other churches in and about London.
Such was his employment at Basire's. As soon as he was out of his time, he began to engrave two designs from the History of England, after drawings which he had made in the holiday hours of his apprenticeship. They were selected from a great number of historical compositions, the fruits of his fancy. He continued making designs for his own amusement, whenever he could steal a moment from the routine of business; and began a course of study at the Royal Academy, under the eye of Mr. Moser. Here he drew with great care, perhaps all, or certainly nearly all the noble antique figures in various views. But now his peculiar notions began to intercept him in his career. He professes drawing from life always to have been hateful to him; and speaks of it as looking more like death, or smelling of mortality. Yet still he drew a good deal from life, both at the academy and at home. In this manner has he managed his talents, till he is himself almost become a Gothic monument. On a view of his whole life, he still thinks himself authorized to pronounce, that practice and opportunity very soon teach the language of art: but its spirit and poetry, which are seated in the imagination alone, never can be taught; and these make an artist.
Mr. Blake has long been known to the order of men among whom he ranks; and is highly esteemed by those, who can distinguish excellence under the disguise of singularity. Enthusiastic and high flown notions on the subject of religion have hitherto, as they usually do, prevented his general reception, as a son of taste and of the muses. The sceptic and the rational believer, uniting their forces against the visionary, pursue and scare a warm and brilliant imagination, with the hue and cry of madness. Not contented with bringing down the reasonings of the mystical philosopher, as they well may, to this degraded level, they apply the test of cold calculation and mathematical proof to departments of the mind, which are privileged to appeal from so narrow and rigorous a tribunal. They criticise the representations of corporeal beauty, and the allegoric emblems of mental perfections; the image of the visible world, which appeals to the senses for a testimony to its truth, or the type of futurity and the immortal soul, which identifies itself with our hopes and with our hearts, as if they were syllogisms or theorems, demonstrable propositions or consecutive corollaries. By them have the higher powers of this artist been kept from public notice, and his genius tied down, as far as possible, to the mechanical department of his profession. By them, in short, has he been stigmatised as an engraver, who might do tolerably well, if he was not mad.
Mr. Blake has long been known to the order of men among whom he ranks; and is highly esteemed by those, who can distinguish excellence under the disguise of singularity. Enthusiastic and high flown notions on the subject of religion have hitherto, as they usually do, prevented his general reception, as a son of taste and of the muses. The sceptic and the rational believer, uniting their forces against the visionary, pursue and scare a warm and brilliant imagination, with the hue and cry of madness. Not contented with bringing down the reasonings of the mystical philosopher, as they well may, to this degraded level, they apply the test of cold calculation and mathematical proof to departments of the mind, which are privileged to appeal from so narrow and rigorous a tribunal. They criticise the representations of corporeal beauty, and the allegoric emblems of mental perfections; the image of the visible world, which appeals to the senses for a testimony to its truth, or the type of futurity and the immortal soul, which identifies itself with our hopes and with our hearts, as if they were syllogisms or theorems, demonstrable propositions or consecutive corollaries. By them have the higher powers of this artist been kept from public notice, and his genius tied down, as far as possible, to the mechanical department of his profession. By them, in short, has he been stigmatised as an engraver, who might do tolerably well, if he was not mad. !--> But men, whose names will bear them out, in what they affirm, have now taken up his cause. On occasion of Mr. Blake engaging to illustrate the poem of The Grave, some of the first artists in this country have stept forward, and liberally given the sanction of ardent and encomiastic applause. Mr. Fuseli, with a mind far superior to that jealousy above described, has written some introductory remarks in the Prospectus of the work. To these he has lent all the penetration of his understanding, with all the energy and descriptive power characteristic of his style. Mr. Hope and Mr. Locke have pledged their character as connoisseurs, by approving and patronising these designs. Had I been furnished with an opportunity of shewing them to you, I should, on Mr. Blake's behalf, have requested your concurring testimony, which you would not have refused me, had you viewed them in the same light.
Neither is the capacity of this untutored proficient limited to his professional occupation. He has made several irregular and unfinished attempts at poetry. He has dared to venture on the ancient simplicity; and feeling it in his own character and manners, has succeeded better than those, who have only seen it through a glass. His genius in this line assimilates more with the bold and careless freedom, peculiar to our writers at the latter end of the sixteenth, and former part of the seventeenth century, than with the polished phraseology, and just, but subdued thought of the eighteenth. As the public have hitherto had no opportunity of passing sentence on his poetical powers, I shall trespass on your patience, while I introduce a few specimens from a collection, circulated only among the author's friends, and richly embellished by his pencil.
The Fairy Glee of Oberon, which Stevens's exquisite music has familiarised to modern ears, will immediately occur to the reader of these laughing stanzas. We may also trace another less obvious resemblance to Jonson, in an ode gratulatory to the Right Honourable Hierome, Lord Weston, for his return from his embassy, in the year 1632. The accord is to be found, not in the words nor in the subject; for either would betray imitation: but in the style of thought, and, if I may so term it, the date of the expression.
Such pleasure as the teeming earth
The following poem of Blake is in a different character. It expresses with majesty and pathos, the feelings of a benevolent mind, on being present at a sublime display of national munificence and charity.
The book of Revelation, which may well be supposed to engross much of Mr. Blake's study, seems to have directed him, in common with Milton, to some of the foregoing images. "And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth." Milton comprises the mighty thunderings in the epithet "loud," and adopts the comparison of many waters, which image our poet, having in the first stanza appropriated differently, to their flow rather than to their sound, exchanges in the last for that of a mighty wind.
He ended; and the heav'nly audience loud
Paradise Lost, Book x. 641.
It may be worth a moment's consideration, whether Dr. Johnson's remarks on devotional poetry, though strictly just where he applies them, to the artificial compositions of Waller and Watts, are universally and necessarily true. Watts seldom rose above the level of a mere versifier. Waller, though entitled to the higher appellation of poet, had formed himself rather to elegance and delicacy, than to passionate emotions or a lofty and dignified deportment. The devotional pieces of the Hebrew bards are clothed in that simple language, to which Johnson with justice ascribes the character of sublimity. There is no reason therefore, why the poets of other nations should not be equally successful, if they think with the same purity, and express themselves in the same unaffected terms. He says indeed with truth, that "Repentance trembling in the presence of the judge, is not at leisure for cadences and epithets." But though we should exclude the severer topics from our catalogue, mercy and benevolence may be treated poetically, because they are in unison with the mild spirit of poetry. They are seldom treated successfully; but the fault is not in the subject. The mind of the poet is too often at leisure for the mechanical prettinesses of cadence and epithet, when it ought to be engrossed by higher thoughts. Words and numbers present themselves unbidden, when the soul is inspired by sentiment, elevated by enthusiasm, or ravished by devotion. I leave it to the reader to determine, whether the following stanzas have any tendency to vindicate this species of poetry; and whether their simplicity and sentiment at all make amends for their inartificial and unassuming construction.
Следующая песня очень в духе песни «Шум и крик в честь Купидона» из Маски на бракосочетание Лорда Хаддингтона. Она была написана в возрасте, когда поэту не было и четырнадцати лет, в пылу юношеской фантазии, и непростая по своему суждению. Поэт, как таковой, позволяет себе очень большую свободу, оснащая себя крыльями, и тем самым присваивает метафорическое одеяние своему телесному образу и виду. Нельзя сказать, что причудливый образ неклассичен, но Пиндар и древние лирики присваивали своим телам внешность лебедей для придавния им величия. Наш готический певец по сути, посажен в клетку Амуром, и подчиняется, как возлюбленный молодой леди, всем капризам головокружительного любопытства и мучительной любви.
Shakspeare's Venus and Adonis, Tarquin and Lucrece, and his Sonnets, occasioned it to be said by a contemporary, that, "As the soul of Euphorbus was thought to live in Pythagoras, so the sweet witty soul of Ovid lives in mellifluous honey-tongued Shakespeare." These poems, now little read, were favourite studies of Mr. Blake's early days. So were Jonson's Underwoods and Miscellanies, and he seems to me to have caught his manner, more than that of Shakspeare in his trifles. The following song is a good deal in the spirit of the Hue and Cry after Cupid, in the Masque on Lord Haddington's marriage. It was written before the age of fourteen, in the heat of youthful fancy, unchastised by judgment. The poet, as such, takes the very strong liberty of equipping himself with wings, and thus appropriates his metaphorical costume to his corporeal fashion and seeming. The conceit is not unclassical; but Pindar and the ancient lyrics arrogated to themselves the bodies of swans for their august residence. Our Gothic songster is content to be encaged by Cupid; and submits, like a young lady's favourite, to all the vagaries of giddy curiosity and tormenting fondness.
The playful character ascribed to the prince of love, and especially his wanton and fantastic action while sporting with his captive, in the two last stanzas, render it probable that the author had read the Hue and Cry after Cupid. If so, it had made its impression; but the lines could scarcely have been remembered at the time of writing or the resemblance would have been closer. The stanzas, to which I especially allude, are these.
Wings he hath, which though ye clip,
The two following little pieces are added, as well by way of contrast, as for the sake of their respective merits. In the first, there is a simple and pastoral gaiety, which the poets of a refined age have generally found much more difficult of attainment, than the glitter of wit, or the affectation of antithesis. The second rises with the subject. It wears that garb of grandeur, which the idea of creation communicates to a mind of the higher order. Our bard, having brought the topic he descants on from warmer latitudes than his own, is justified in adopting an imagery, of almost oriental feature and complection.
I love the jocund dance,
Кроме этих лирических композиций, мистер Блейк дал несколько образцов белого стиха. Здесь, как и следовало ожидать, его воплощение смелое, мысли оригинальные, и стиль вообще эпичен по своей структуре. Однако из за его необузданности, чувство меры которое должно сдерживать поэта, нередко предает его и даёт место такому дикому галопу фантазии, что гармония остаётся без внимания, а скачущее воображение переходит черту, проводимую критическим чутьём.
Besides these lyric compositions, Mr. Blake has given several specimens of blank verse. Here, as might be expected, his personifications are bold, his thoughts original, and his style of writing altogether epic in its structure. The unrestrained measure, however, which should warn the poet to restrain himself, has not unfrequently betrayed him into so wild a pursuit of fancy, as to leave harmony unregarded, and to pass the line prescribed by criticism to the career of imagination.
But I have been leading you beside our subject, into a labyrinth of poetical comment, with as little method or ceremony, as if we were to have no witness of our correspondence. It is time we should return from the masquing regions of poetry, to the business with which we set out. Donne, in his Anatomy of the World, remarks the Egyptians to have acted wisely, in bestowing more cost upon their tombs than on their houses. This example he adduces, to justify his own Funeral Elegies: and I may perhaps be allowed to adopt it, as an additional plea, should my former be of no avail, for coming forward with this piece of almost infantine biography. If it be a custom, handed down from high antiquity, to enshrine the breathless clay of honourable men in brass or marble;—if poetry and the arts jointly present their offerings at the obsequies of princes, patriots, or heroes, why may not the frailty of our hopes in private life be moralised, or the sorrows of a family consecrated, by the pen of the father or the friend? The eye, which looks through the magnifying tube of interest or vanity in the public panegyric, may be deceived in the private by affection. In either case, the good is sure to be doubled, and what is amiss to be thrown at a distance. There is however little room for my intellectual vision to be thus deluded. Partiality is the standing reproach of biographers: nor are we disposed to pass a harsh sentence against an error on the side of candour. It is natural to conceal those spots in a beloved character, which we lament; and to extinguish private vices in a radiance of public glory. But I have neither motive nor means for practising such a deception, venial as in some cases it may be. My office is of a far more humble order; yet it has soothed and rewarded me in the performance, as you predicted that it would. I had to relate, from plain and authentic documents, the early progress of a mind, too lately come into the world, to be corrupted by it. In such a mind the springs of action were all single and simple; the virtues were just beginning to move and act under the hand of him who contrived and disposed them, without being crossed as yet by contrary forces or attractions; the love of knowledge moved forward to its object and its end, without the mercenary bias, which often draws it from its proper and more honourable course in later life. I hope to be found, neither to have mistaken the nature of my task, nor to have made too much of it. After all, it is perhaps easier to perceive than to avoid the difficulties, which lie between so modest a delineation, as would deprive the picture of its interest, and so high a varnish and finishing, as might rather bespeak the confidence of the workman, than the excellence of his subject or materials.
I regret, my dear friend, that it was not in my power to furnish you and my readers with a portrait of a later date. We had often talked of allowing ourselves that indulgence; but we were not privy to the event, which was to have communicated to it an incalculable value. The engraving here given, though it might well be taken to represent a much older child, is from a very beautiful miniature, painted by Paye, when Thomas was not quite two years old. He then was only beginning to speak; but there was even at that early period an intelligence in his eye, and an expression about his mouth, which are, I hope, sufficiently characterised in the delineation, to afford no inadequate idea of his physiognomy.
There is a circumstance, to which I cannot but allude, and need do no more. The trick of converting confidential correspondence, private history, or domestic events, to marketable purposes, has been practised of late years with little remorse, and in open defiance of all prejudice on the side of decency. Yet to drag the privacy of a wife or a child into day-light, and expose to an inquisitive world scenes which were never meant to meet the public eye, may be entered in the day-book of the literary trade, among its meanest arts. Without affecting to despise the pecuniary reward, which the labours of the pen may fairly covet and proudly enjoy, I could not but feel repugnant, in the present very peculiar case, to the idea of deriving immediately to myself any casual advantage, from setting the accomplishments of a deceased child to sale. But there is a purpose, which may be honourably promoted by such a contingency. To make some little addition to the library of the young survivors, or to their other means of instruction, beyond what else it might be thought expedient for a moderate fortune to supply, will be an appropriation strictly conformable with the turn and spirit of the departed.
With so very confined an aim, I am not solicitous that this production should circulate extensively; but I do wish, with more anxiety than I am accustomed to experience, that it may prove acceptable among those, whom either personal knowledge or the natural warmth of human kindness may interest in the subject. Should it stagger the sceptical, or disgust the supercilious, I shall easily reconcile myself to the loss of their suffrage. Neither my measure of parental duty, nor my share of satisfaction in its performance, are to be computed by such a standard. I have waited till my passions are cooled: I have exercised the best of my memory and my judgment, without venturing further on the dangerous province of appreciation, than seemed to be warranted by the papers before me. Yet I am still aware that I write as a father; and am consequently liable to indulge myself in a more partial strain, than may meet the approbation and consent of indifferent persons. I have, however, done all I could to be temperate: if I have occasionally forgotten myself, I desire to plead before a jury of fathers, and entrust my fate to their decision.
At all events, this work, though it should escape censure, can rank no higher than a trifle. What apology must I make for addressing it to a fellow-labourer, who has accomplished the serious and difficult task of giving an English dress to Froissart? I think it was Gray, who denominated your venerable original the Herodotus of a barbarous age. But surely that age is entitled to a more respectful epithet, when France could boast its Froissart, Italy its Petrarch, England its Wickliffe, the father of our reformation, and Chaucer, the father of our poetry. If I might slightly alter the designation of so complete a critic, I would prefer calling this simple and genuine historian, the Herodotus of chivalry. But by whatever title we are to greet him, the interesting minuteness of his recital, affording a strong pledge of its fidelity, the lively delineation of manners, and the charm of unadulterated language, all conspire to place him in the first rank of early writers. The public begin to revolt from that spirit of philosophizing on the most common occasions, in consequence of which our modern historians seem to be more ingenious in assigning causes and motives, than assiduous to ascertain facts. We are returning home to plain tales and first-hand authorities; and you will share the honour of pointing out the way. Froissart, hitherto inaccessible to English readers in general, from the obsolete garb both of the French and of Lord Berners's translation, may now be read in such a form, as to unite the peculiar thought and turn of the ancient with the intelligible phraseology of modern times. With my best congratulations on your success, and my earnest request to be forgiven for thus intruding on your leisure, believe me to be,
My dear friend,
B. H. MALKIN.
Hackney, January 4, 1806.
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