Блейк-Словарь (Деймон)/Аллегория

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ALLEGORY is a literary device in which abstractions are personified. “Allegories are things that Relate to Moral Virtues. Moral Virtues do not Exist; they are Allegories & dissimulations” ( LJ, K 614). Allegory is conceived in the intellect and seeks emotional form. Symbolism, however, is a literary device in which psychological realities rise from the subconscious and take sensorial form. Allegory is a riddle, which fails unless it is solved; symbolism is a dream, which fails if its entire meaning is obvious. Allegory is to poetry what dogma is to religion. As far as I know, Blake was the first English critic to distinguish between the two. “The Last Judgment is not Fable or Allegory, but Vision [symbolism]. . . . Vision or Imagination is a Representation of what Eternally Exists, Really & Unchangeably. Fable or Allegory is Form’d by the daughters of Memory. Imagination is surrounded by the daughters of Inspiration, who in the aggregate are call’d Jerusalem. Fable is Allegory, but what Critics call The Fable, is Vision itself. The Hebrew Bible & the Gospel of Jesus are not Allegory, but Eternal Vision or Imagination of All that Exists. Note here that Fable or Allegory is seldom without some Vision. Pilgrim’s Progress is full of it, the Greek Poets the same; but Allegory & Vision ought to be known as Two Distinct Things, & so call’d for the Sake of Eternal Life” (LJ, K 604). Whenever Blake uses the word “allegory” (with one or two exceptions) he means something falsified from an original. Thus Enitharmon’s doctrine promises eternal life “in an allegorical abode where existence hath never come” (Eur 5:7). The economists “fix the price of labour, to invent allegoric riches” (SoL 6:17). The religion of chastity reveals “hidden wonders, allegoric of the Generations of secret lust” (FZ vii b:24). The Tree of Mystery “unfolds in Allegoric fruit” (FZ viii:169). “The Atlantic Mountains where Giants dwelt in Intellect [are] now given to stony Druids and Allegoric Generation” (J 50:1). Jerusalem, when in the stomach of the Covering Cherub, is bewildered “in allegoric delusion & woe” (J 89:45). Dr. Thornton’s God “is only an Allegory of Kings & nothing Else” (On Thornton, K 789). Ordinary marriage in this world is the result of Gwendolen’s falsehood, which grew till it became “a Space & an Allegory around the Winding Worm” ( J 85:1); this is “the little lovely Allegoric Night of Albion’s Daughters” ( J 88:31). Albion tries to limit Los by “rending the fibres of Brotherhood & in Feminine Allegories inclosing Los” (J 30:18). The one important exception when Blake used the word with approval seems to have been a slip of the pen. “Allegory address’d to the Intellectual powers, while it is altogether hidden from the Corporeal Understanding, is My Definition of the Most Sublime Poetry” (To Butts, 6 July 1803).