Блейк-Словарь (Деймон)/Адам

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ADAM (“red earth”) was the first human being. His creation was a comparatively late episode in the general fall of man (Albion). “Satan & Adam & the whole World was Created by the Elohim” in Albion’s “Chaotic State of Sleep” (J 27). In Blake’s day, the first two chapters of Genesis were read as a consecutive tale, not as two independent accounts of the same event. Consequently, there were two stages of Adam’s creation: the first, when he was made in the image of God (Gen i:27); the second, when he was made of the dust (Gen ii:7). Later, the Lord was to repent “that he had made Adam (of the Female, the Adamah) & it grieved him at his heart” (Laoc, K 776—revised from Gen vi:6; see ADAMAH). Adam originally contained both sexes. Blake confused Crabb Robinson on this point by talking of “a union of sexes in man as in Ovid, an androgynous state” (CR 263, 296). This theory, which Blake might have got from Plato, seemed indicated by the text “And God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them” (Gen i:27). The sexes were not separated until the creation of Eve, when Adam was “divided into Male and Female” (Blake’s MS. Genesis, Chap. ii; Damon 221). But it was Jesus himself who divided the sexes in creating Eve (J 35 [31], illustr.) that “Himself may in process of time be born Man to redeem” (J 42:34). Blake made much of the statement that the Elohim was the creator of Adam, for he was not the supreme Jehovah (CR 298), but was only the third Eye of God. See ELOHIM. “[The Eternals] sent Elohim, who created Adam to die for Satan. Adam refus’d, but was compell’d to die by Satan’s arts” (FZ viii:401). But first the merciful Jesus fixed two limits to the Fall. “The Divine hand found the Two Limits, first of Opacity, then of Contraction. Opacity was named Satan, Contraction was named Adam” (Mil 13:20). This event took place between the failure of the second Eye and before the coming of the third. Jesus found these two limits in Albion’s bosom “while yet those two beings were not born nor knew of good or Evil” (FZ iv:271–74). They are to be found in every individual man (J 42:30; see also J 35:1; 73:28). On the Laocoön plate, Satan and Adam are the two sons of Yod, “the Angel of the Divine Presence” (K 775). Adam is thus the younger brother of Satan. Their relationship is shown most clearly in the illustration on Milton 33. The “Mundane Egg” (Mil 25:42) is superimposed on the four flaming Zoas, and is divided into two parts. The lower part, labelled “Satan,” is mostly in the sphere of Urizen; the infernal flames reach into the upper part, labelled “Adam.” Thus Adam is the conscious mind and Satan the subconscious, the source of Energy. See MUNDANE EGG. As the two sons of Laocoön, they are entwined with the serpents of Good and Evil, which also are killing their father. Adam struggles with the serpent labelled “Good”; and the name of his first wife, Lilith, is written there. See LILITH. Adam and Eve remained in the state of Innocence until the Serpent persuaded Eve to eat the fruit of the forbidden Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, promising her that “ye shall be as gods [Elohim—judges], knowing good and evil” (Gen iii:5). The Original Sin therefore was judging others by moral values. After she had persuaded Adam to eat also, they were instantly ashamed of their nakedness. Shame was the first sign of Experience; the second was hiding from God. Their first two children exhibited their error, for Cain was evil and Abel was good. The evil slew the good. For Adam, who contained all the souls of future mankind, according to rabbinical tradition, contained warring elements: he is “Peleg [‘division’] & Joktan [‘who is made small,’ his brother], & Esau & Jacob, & Saul & David” (J 73:28). The fallen Adam “is only The Natural Man & not the Soul or Imagination” (Laoc, K 776; Damon 221); he is Rousseau’s Natural Man. He is also the conscious part of the mind. As the Limit of Contraction, he is the lowest point to which man can shrink. In the illustration to Young’s Night Thoughts, “Sense and Reason Shew the Door” (iv:136), Blake followed Milton in representing Reason as Adam and Sense as Eve; but he contradicted Young by having them point upwards as well as down, and the door is Gothic, with angels for archivolts. “Satan & Adam are States Created into Twenty-seven Churches” ( Mil 32:25). None of these is named for Satan: as Error he includes them all. Adam leads the cycle, being the first of the nine from Adam to Lamech (the father of Noah, who begins the second group). These nine were mighty giants (having lived before the Flood); they were “hermaphroditic,” being self-contradictory and unsynthesized (Mil 37:36; J 13:32; 75:11). “And where Luther ends Adam begins again in Eternal Circle” (J 75:24). These churches before the Flood were “fill’d with blood & fire & vapour of smoke; even till Abraham’s time the vapor & heat was not extinguish’d; these States Exist now” (LJ, K 606). Adam is the nineteenth son of Los and Enitharmon (FZ viii:360); he is preceded by Satan (error), Har (self-love), Ochim (woes), and Ijim (animal lusts). He is the first of the prophets created by Los, to offset the line of kings created by Satan (J 73: 41). He is reduced to a skeleton by the laws of Urizen, while Noah, the man of vision with whom he is contrasted, becomes leprous (SoL 3:6, 10; 7:20). He is equated with Scofield (J 7:25, 42); Hand and Scofield in their innocence were united as one man, Adam (J 60:16). In The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, Blake prophesied Adam’s return into Paradise (MHH 3). The CAVE OF ADAM, obviously meaning the skull, is the place where Reuben sleeps while his senses are being limited (J 36:5). But Blake may also have intended to refer to “the city Adam” (Adamah), which was beside Zaretan, approximately half way between that city and Succoth (Josh iii: 16).