Блейк-Словарь (Деймон)/Абстракция

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An ABSTRACTION is a generalization based on reality, but which when substituted for reality becomes hostile to humanity. In Blake’s writings, “abstract” usually can be translated “non-human.” It is “opposed to the Visions of Imagination” (J 74:26). Orthodox religion is such an abstraction. Priesthood “enslav’d the vulgar by attempting to realize or abstract the mental deities from their objects” (MHH 11). The parson with his “nets & gins & traps” surrounds the farmer “with cold floods of abstraction, and with forests of solitude” in order to take his money and build “castles and high spires, where kings & priests may dwell” (VDA 5:18).” And this is the manner of the Sons of Albion in their strength: they take the Two Contraries which are call’d Qualities, with which every Substance is clothed: they name them Good & Evil; from them they make an Abstract, which is a Negation not only of the Substance from which it is derived, a murderer of its own Body, but also a murderer of every Divine Member: it is the Reasoning Power, an Abstract objecting power that Negatives every thing. This is the Spectre of Man, the Holy Reasoning Power, and in its Holiness is closed the Abomination of Desolation” (J 10:7). As abstractions are the invention of logic, Urizen is the great abstracter. At the very beginning he is “unknown, abstracted” (Ur 3:6), and at the end, Albion bids him “come forth from slumbers of thy cold abstraction” (FZ ix:129). Fuzon, in denouncing Urizen, calls him “this abstract nonentity” (Ahan 2:11). “The Human Abstract” (SoE) describes the origin and growth of his Tree of Mystery. When Orc begins to reptilize under Urizen’s influence, he turns “affection into fury, & thought into abstraction” (FZ vii:155). Blake learned early from Lavater (K 86) that “all abstraction is temporary folly”; and he complained later to Butts (11 Sept 1801) that “my Abstract folly hurries me often away while I am at work, carrying me over Mountains & Valleys, which are not Real, in a Land of Abstraction where Spectres of the Dead wander.”