Блейк и Античность (Кэтлин Рейн)

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Кэтлин Рейн. Блейк и Античность. 1979

Kathleen Raine. Blake and Antiquity, 1979 - 140 pages


Blake and Antiquity.jpg

Введение к изданию «Рутледж-Классикс»

Среди чудес моего детства (а я родилась в 1908 году) были пакетики из далекой Японии с окрашенными и высушенных фрагментами сердцевины растений, которые, когда вы кладете их в миску с водой, превращались в водяной сад с разноцветными цветами. Или, чтобы продолжить эту же мысль, каждый желудь содержит дуб в миниатюре, каждый конский каштан потенциальное каштановое дерево. Если перенести эту идею в микромир: молекула ДНК может потенциально стать уникальным человеком во всей его сложности. И все же желудь — это не дуб, а ДНК не потенциальный человек. Основой является тайна жизни, птицы и зверя, леса и сорняков, неизвестной «виртуальной реальности» techne[1]. Так же и с идеями — в некоторые исторические моменты человечество интересовалось основополагающими мифами, в других — разворачиванием этих мифов в том, что Карл Густав Юнг назвал «индивидуацией». Например, оригинальный миф об Эросе можно найти в восьмистишии Блейка «Больная роза», в сказке «Красавица и чудовище», в прекрасной скульптуре Кановы «Купидон и Психея» или в первой любви каждой девушки. Или все эти уровни могут быть найдены вместе, от метафизического до психологического и индивидуального, в полном опыте эротической любви с её неоднозначной идентичностью «невидимого червя», змея, «зверя» и божественно прекрасного бога, незримого любовника Психеи. То что лежит в основе жизни, остается, как и должно быть, загадкой, непостижимым.

Когда в 2001 году я перечитала эту сокращенную версию книги Blake and Tradition (1963, опубликованную в 1977 году), она показалась мне сравнимой с теми японскими водяными цветами или желудем, который является потенциальным дубом, на который он так мало похож. Я полагаю, что теперь легче понять, что за прошедшие годы двадцатого столетия произошло появление науки (или искусства) психологии, которая была открыта сначала Фрейдом, а затем преобразована и обогащена Юнгом, без понимания которой было бы трудно понять тот порядок реальности, который Блейк выразил в своей мифологии о «Гиганте Альбионе», английской нации. Все священные писания мира теперь доступны в популярных изданиях, которые на момент написания моей книги штудировались только учеными или эзотерическими обществами. Теперь они стали «священными книгами» целого поколения «в поисках души», как выразился Юнг, из которых сам Блейк является «Мастером». Все больше людей, и не только молодого поколения, обнаруживают, что атеистический материализм, который остается ортодоксальностью прессы, средств массовой информации и даже университетов современного Запада, не только невыносим, ​​но и беспочвенен.

Чтобы понять смысл этой короткой книги, читателю, как мне кажется, следовало бы прочитать двухтомную работу «Блейк и традиция», сокращенным вариантом которой она является, а чтобы понять ту книгу ему пришлось бы потратить многие годы, как и мне, погружаясь в мифологии, священные тексты и бесчисленные истории мира, которые, как утверждает Веда, в конечном счете, являются одной историей, «написанной Богом».

Что касается мифологии Гигантского Альбиона, английской нации, а также конфликтов и примирения «четырех Зоа», то мы сами являемся их участниками. Они четверо во всех нас, и, однажды узнаваемые, странно знакомые: Уризен, слепой и пожилой, разум Тирана, претендующий на власть, принадлежащую «Божественному человечеству», «Иисусу Воображению», Богу внутри. Уризен - мрачный законодатель, который объявил: «Теперь я бог от вечности до вечности», создатель Десяти заповедей. Орк - это огненный дух энергии, молодой революционер, которым является Эрос, о котором Блейк пишет: «Когда Мысль скрыта в Пещерах, Тогда любовь покажет свои корни в глубочайшем аду»; тамастический[2] Тармас; и Лос, дух вдохновения, который трудится у своих «печей», своим молотом, создающим и разрушающим дела Времени в его задаче, заключающейся в том, чтобы воплотить на земле видение вечности. Это был Лос, о котором Блейк писал, что «он слодовал Божественному видение в годины бедствий». Все это можно найти в великих произведениях и в великих недостатках английской мысли на протяжении всей истории.

Нетрудно назвать имена людей, которые воплотили эти архетипы: Уризен в блейкосвком тройном враге Воображения: Бэкон, Ньютон и Локк; Лос, провидец, - это Мильтон, «вдохновенный человек», которому Блейк посвятил свою «пророческую» книгу Мильтон. Блейк видел эту драму не как историю «греха» и «покаяния», как её трактуют в церкви, а как историю «сна» и «пробуждения», как это было для Плотина и неоплатоников. Альбион «погрузился в смертельный сон», и в своих пророческих трудах Блейк призывает народ «пробудиться». Плотин, чьи работы Блейк знал в переводах своего бывшего друга Томаса Тейлора, описывает человечество как переходящее «из постели в постель, из сна в сон». Блейк писал: «Я не считаю, что праведные ни нечестивые находятся в Высшем Положении, но и те и другие находятся в Состояниях Сна, в которые душа может попасть в своих бренных снах о Добре и Зле, когда она покидает Рай, следуя за Змием». Для Блейка искусства являются вестриками этого пробуждения и представляют собой состояние пробуждения: «Поэзия, Живопись и Музыка, три Силы в Человеке, разговаривающие с Раем, которые не поглотил Потоп - 'море времени и пространства'». Поэтому блейковский Мильтон, поэт, называется «пробуждителем. Духовно непробуждённые - это та «тяжелая масса», которая

Провидцев назовёт лжецами,
Неверующих — мудрецами?[3]

Именно они говорят о «реальном мире» как о мире, воспринимаемом в непробужденном состоянии, но только в пробужденном состоянии мы видим реальность такой, какая она есть. Поскольку «Божественная Человечность», блейковский «Иисус», «Воображение», является «Богом внутри», присутствующим внутри и в каждом человеке, мы всегда можем обнаружить это Присутствие, этот источник в себе. Понятно, что послание Блейка «Христианам» предназначено для всех нас:

Дарую вам нити конец золотой,
В шар сверните её, зане
Она приведёт вас к Райским вратам
В Иерусалима стене.[4]

Христианство, мы должны помнить, является для Блейка религией «Иисуса, Воображения», для всего человечества. Мы должны совершить «индивидуацию» универсальной жизни.

Я могу только надеяться, что мои труды о Блейке попадут в руки некоторых искателей той реальности внутри, конца Золотой струны Блейка. Как и я, они обнаружат, что эта струна очень длинная, в которую входят не только собственные объемные произведения Блейка, но и вся «священная» литература мира, вся поэзия, музыка и живопись, которые говорят, исходя от Воображения и обращаясь к Воображению на забытом, но универсальном языке рая. Вторая глава Иерусалима посвящена «Евреям» и предваряется словами:

Вы едины, о жители Земли, в Одной Религии, Религии Иисуса, древнейшего, вечного и вечносущего Евангелия.

Эта религия - не христианская церковь, а «вечная философия», санатана дхарма индийского главного направления, и в этом контексте, еврейская традиция Адама Кадмона. Назвав «Авраама, Хевера, Сима и Ноя» друидами, Блейк продолжает <обращаясь к евреям>:

У вас есть традиция, что Человек в древности содержал в своих могущественных членах все вещи на Небесах и на Земле: это вы получили от друидов. Но ныне Звездные Небеса сбежали от могучих членов Альбиона.

Адам Кадмон - это человеческая раса в целом, один-во-многих и многие-в-одном, который является источником «божественного человечества» Блейка, «как Единого Человека всей Вселенской семьи». Блейк переименовал еврейского Адама Кадмона в «Иисус, Воображение». Мы сами являемся той «универсальной семьей», о которой Блейк писал, что «сжимая свои возвышенные чувства, / они созерцают множество, или расширяясь, они видят как одно». «Сокращая», мы индивидуализируем, «Расширяя», мы участвуем в универсальном видении. В этих реальностях Воображения под любым именем участвовуют все.

Лондон, февраль 2002


Introduction to the Routledge Classics edition

Among the wonders of my childhood (I was born in 1908) were little packets from far-away Japan of dyed and dried fragments of pith that, when you put them in a bowl of water, expanded into a water-garden of coloured flowers. Or to pursue the same thought, every acorn contains a minute oak, every horse-chestnut a potential chestnut tree. To take the idea into the microscopic world, a DNA potential can become a unique human being in all our complexity. Yet an acorn is not an oak-tree, not а DNA potential a human being. The seminal is the mystery of life, of bird and beast, forest and weed, unknown to the 'virtual reality' of techne. So it is with ideas — at some historical moments humankind has been concerned with seminal myths, at others the unfolding of these myths in what C.G. Jung has called 'individuation'. The seminal myth, for example, of Eros can be found in Blake's eight-line poem The Sick Rose, in the fairy-tale of Beauty and Beast, in Canova's beautiful sculpture of Cupid and Psyche, or in every girl's first love. Or all these levels may be found together, from the metaphysical to psychological and the individual, in a full experience of erotic love, with its ambiguous identity of the 'invisible worm', the serpent, the 'beast' and the divinely beautiful god, Psyche's invisible lover. What lies at the heart of the life remains, as it must, a mystery, unknowable.

Re-reading in 2001 this shortened version of Blake and Tradition (1963, published in 1977), it seems to me comparable to those Japanese water-flowers, or the acorn that is the potential oaktree, to which it bears little resemblance. Easier to understand now, I believe, for the intervening years of the twentieth century have seen the advent of the science (or art) of psychology, opened first by Freud and later transformed and enriched by Jung, without whose terms it would be hard to understand the order of reality Blake was expressing in his mythology of ‘the Giant Albion’, the English nation. All the sacred scriptures of the world are now available in paperback, which at the time my book was written were studied only by scholars or esoteric societies. Now they have become the ‘holy books’ of a whole generation ‘in search of a soul’ as Jung has put it, of whom Blake himself is the ‘Master’. Growing numbers, and not only of a younger generation, are discovering that the atheist materialism, which remains the orthodoxy of the press, the media and indeed the universities of the modern West, is not only intolerable, but groundless.

In order to make sense of this short book the reader would, it seems to me, to have had to read the two-volume work, Blake and Tradition, from which it has been abridged, and to understand that book would have had to spend many years, as I did, immersed in the mythologies, the sacred texts, and the innumerable stories ofthe world which ultimately are, as the Veda says, but one story, ‘written by God’.

Of the mythology of the Giant Albion, the English nation, and of the conflicts and reconciliation of the ‘four Zoas’ we are ourselves the enactors. They four are in us all, and, once recognised, strangely familiar: Urizen, blind and aged, the tyrant Reason who lays claim to the authority which belongs to the ‘Divine Humanity’, ‘Jesus the Imagination’, the God within. Urizen is the gloomy law-giver who declared ‘Now I am god from eternity to eternity’, framer of the Ten Commandments. Orc is the fiery spirit of energy, the youthful revolutionary, who is Eros, of whom Blake writes ‘When Thought is clos’d in Caves, Then love shall show its root in deepest Hell’; tamasic Tharmas; and Los, spirit of inspiration, who labours at his ‘furnaces’, with his hammer creating and destroying the works of Time in his task which is to embody on earth the vision of eternity. It is Los of whom Blake wrote that ‘He kept the Divine Vision in time of trouble’. All these are to be found in the great works and in the great shortcomings of English thought throughout history.

It is not difficult to give names to persons who have embodied these archetypes: Urizen in Blake’s threefold enemy of the Imagination, Bacon, Newton and Locke; Los, the visionary, is Milton, ‘the inspired man’, to whom Blake dedicated his ‘prophetic’ book Milton. Blake saw that drama not as a story of ‘sin’ and ‘repentance’ as taught by the churches, but, as for Plotinus and the Neoplatonists, of ‘sleep’ and ‘awaking’. Albion is ‘sunk in deadly sleep’, and throughout his prophetic writings Blake summons the nation to ‘awake’. Plotinus, whose works Blake knew in the translations of his one-time friend Thomas Taylor, describes humankind as passing ‘from bed to bed, from sleep to sleep’. Blake wrote ‘I do not consider either the just or the wicked to be in a Supreme State, but to be every one of them States of Sleep which the soul may fall into in its deadly dreams of Good & Evil when it leaves Paradise following the Serpent.’ For Blake the arts are the agents of that awakening, and represent the awakened state: ‘Poetry, Painting & Music, the three Powers in Man of conversing with Paradise, which the Flood’ – the ‘sea of time and space’ – ‘did not Sweep away.’ Therefore, Blake’s Milton, the poet, is called ‘the awakener’. The spiritually unawakened are that ‘slumbrous mass’ who

Charge visionaries with deceiving
Or call Men wise for not Believing[5]

It is these who speak of ‘the real world’ as the world perceived in the unawakened state, but it is only in the awakened state that we see reality as it is. Since the ‘Divine Humanity’, Blake’s ‘Jesus, the Imagination’, is the ‘God within’, present in and to every individual, we can always discover that Presence, that source, in ourselves. So understood, Blake’s message ‘To the Christians’, is for us all:

I give you the end of a golden string
Only wind it into a ball,
It will bring you in at Heaven’s gate
Built in Jerusalem’s wall.[6]

Christianity, we must remember, is for Blake the religion of ‘Jesus, the Imagination’, for the whole of humankind. It is for us to ‘individuate’ the universal life.

I can only hope that my writings on Blake have put into the hands of some seekers for that reality within, the end of Blake’s Golden String. They will find, as I have done, that this string is a very long one, winding in not only Blake’s own voluminous writings but all the ‘sacred’ literature of the world, all poetry, music and painting that speaks from and to the Imagination in the forgotten but universal language of Paradise. The second chapter of Jerusalem is dedicated ‘To the Jews’ and is prefaced by the words

Ye are united, O ye Inhabitants of Earth, in One Religion, The

Religion of Jesus, the most Ancient, the Eternal & the Everlasting Gospel.

This religion is not the Christian Church, but the ‘perennial philosophy’, the sanatana dharma of the Indian mainstream, and in this context, the Jewish tradition of Adam Kadmon. Having named ‘Abraham, Heber, Shem and Noah, who were Druids’, Blake continues:

You have a tradition, that Man anciently contain’d in his mighty limbs all things in Heaven & Earth: this you received from the Druids. But now the Starry Heavens are fled from the mighty limbs of Albion.

Adam Kadmon is the human race as a whole, the one-in-many and many-in-one who is the source of Blake’s own ‘divine humanity’, ‘as One Man all the Universal family’. Blake has but renamed the Jewish Adam Kadmon, ‘Jesus, the Imagination’. We ourselves are that ‘universal family’ of whom Blake wrote that ‘contracting their Exalted Senses, / They behold Multitude, or Expanding they behold as one’. ‘Contracting’ we individuate, ‘Expanding’ we participate in the universal vision. In these realities of the Imagination it is, under whatever name, for all to participate.

London, February 2002

Примечания

  1. Греческое слово «тэхнэ» («techne») обозначает и «науку», и «искусство».
  2. Tamasic (о пище в аюрведе).
  3. Вечносущее Евангелие, h 5-6
  4. Иерусалим, Эманация Гиганта Альбиона, Лист 77. К христианам
  5. The Everlasting Gospel, h 5-6
  6. Jerusalem The Emanation of the Giant Albion, Plate 77. To the Christians


References

A Bibliography of William Blake . By Geoffrey Keynes . New York (Grolier

Club), 1921. Revised 1953.

A Blake Bibliography: Annotated Lists of Works, Studies, and Blakeana .

By G. E. Bentley, Jr. , and Martin K. Nurmi . Minneapoliscmt (University of Minnesota Press) and London, 1964

The Works of William Blake, Poetic, Symbolic, and Critical . Edited, with

Lithographs of the Illustrated 2Prophetic Books," and a Memoir and Interpretation, by Edwin J. Ellis and W. B. Yeats . London, 1893. 3 vols.

The Complete Writings of William Blake . With All the Variant Readings. Edited by Geoffrey Keynes . London and New York, 1957. This "Vari-orumâ" (bicentenary) edition is now the definitive edition, containing material previously unpublished. A new edition appeared in 1966, with a few corrections and amendments but otherwise identical with the 1957 edition, which remains the source for the texts quoted in the present work.

Entries marked * were engraved, printed, and published in small editions by Blake himself as specimens of "illuminated printing." Facsimile editions before 1900 are not listed.

Poetical Sketches (1783). Facsimile edition, London (Noel Douglas), 1926.

All Religions are One (c. 1788-94). Facsimile edition, ed. Frederick Hollyer. London, 1926.

  • There is No Natural Religion (c. 1788). Facsimile edition, ed. Philip Hofer,

Cambridge (Mass.), 1948.

  • Songs of Innocence (1789). Facsimile edition, London (Trianon Press),

1954.

  • The Book of Thel (1789). Facsimile edition, ed. Frederick Hollyer . London,

1924. Another, London and New York, 1928. Another, London (Trianon Press), 1965.

Tiriel . Not printed in Blake's lifetime. Facsimile and transcript of the manuscript, and reproductions of the drawings, ed. G. E. Bentley, Oxford, 1967.

  • The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1790). Facsimile, with a Note by Max

Plowman, London and New York , 1927. Facsimile edition, London (Trianon Press), 1960

  • The French Revolution: A Poem in Seven Books. Book the First (1791). Not

published in Blakeâ's lifetime; the only recorded copy is probably a proof.

  • Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793). Facsimile, with a Note by J.

Middleton Murry , London and New York, 1932. Facsimile edition, London (Trianon Press), 1959.

  • America: A Prophecy (1793). Color facsimile edition, with a Foreword by

Ruthven Todd . New York (United Book Guild), 1947. Facsimile edition, London (Trianon Press), 1963

  • For Children: The Gates of Paradise (1793). Facsimile edition, London

(Trianon Press), 1968

  • For the Sexes: The Gates of Paradise (1818). A revised issue of For

Children: The Gates of Paradìse (1793), with text added. Facsimile edition, London (Trianon Press), 1968

  • Songs of Innocence and Experience . Shewing the Two Contrary States of

the Human Soul (1794). Facsimile edition, London (Trianon Press), 1955.

  • Europe: A Prophecy (1794). Facsimile edition, London (Trianon Press),

1969.

  • The [First] Book of Urizen (1794). With a Note by Dorothy Plowman , London

and New York, 1929. Facsimile edition, London (Trianon Press), 1958. The Song of Los (1795). Facsimile edition, London (Trianon Press), in preparation.

  • The Book of Los (1795). William Blakeâ's Vala: Blakeâ's Numbered Text.

Edited by H. M. Margoliouth . Oxford, 1956. The text of the original poem of this name, before the additions and alterations made to the manuscript now entitled The Four Zoas. It is included here to complete the corpus of Blake's original works. Vala, or The Four Zoas. A Facsimile of the Manuscript, a Transcript of the Poem, and a Study of its Growth and Significance. By G. E. Bentley, Jr. Oxford, 1963. See also Vala, ed. H. M. Margoliouth , above.

  • The Book of Ahania (1795). One copy only recorded. Facsimile edition,

London (Trianon Press), 1973.

  • Milton (1804 [? 1808]). Facsimile edition, London (Trianon Press), 1967.
  • Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion (1804-20). Facsimile edition,

in color, London (Trianon Press), 1951; idem, black and white, 1955. A simplified version prepared and edited by W. R. Hughes , London, 1964.

Blake's Chaucer . The Canterbury Pilgrims, The Fresco Picture,

Representing Chaucer’s Characters painted by William Blake, as it is now submitted to the Public, the Designer proposes to engrave, etc. [A prospectus]. (1809).

A Descriptive Catalogue of Pictures , Poetical and Historical Inventions,

Painted by William Blake , in Water Colours , being the Ancient method of Fresco Painting Restored: and Drawings, for Public Inspection… (1809). Compiled by Blake for an exhibition of his work.

The Notebook of William Blake Called the Rossetti Manuscript . Edited by

  • Geoffrey Keynes . London, 1935. With facsimile.
  • Lavater's Aphorisms on Man. Translated from the original MS. of John

Caspar Lavater . (Engraved by Blake.) London, 1788.

  • Salzmann, C. G. Elements of Morality, for the Use of Children; with an

Introductory Address to Parents . (Translated from the German by Mary Wollstonecraft. ) London, 1790, 2 vols. 2nd edn. (first with plates adapted by Blake from German originals), London, 1791, 3 vols.

  • Wollstonecraft, Mary . Original Stories from Real Life . London, 1791. Edited

by E. V. Lucas , London, 1906.

  • Darwin, Erasmus . The Botanic Garden. A Poem. London, 1791. (Title-page

of second part dated 1790.)

  • Cumberland, George . Thoughts on Outline, Sculpture and the System that

Guided the Ancient Artists in Composing their Figures and Groupes . London, 1796.

  • Young, Edward . Night Thoughts . Edited by R. Edwards . London, 1797.

See also Illustrations to Young’s Night Thoughts, Done in Water-Colour by William Blake. Thirty pages reproduced from the original water colors in the library of W. White. With an introductory essay by Geoffrey Keynes. Cambridge (Mass.) and London, 1927.

  • Blair, Robert . The Grave. Illustrated by twelve etchings executed by Louis

Schiavonetti from original inventions [of William Blake]. London, 1808. Reissued 1813; London, 1903; London, 1905. See also: Blake's Grave: A Prophetic Book. Being William Blake's illustrations for Robert Blair's The Grave, arranged as Blake directed. With a commentary by S. F. Damon , Providence, Rhode Island, 1953.

Thornton, Robert John . 114 The Pastorals of Virgil . London, 1821. 2 vols. (This edition is the first with Blake's woodcuts.) Also edited by Laurence Binyon , London, 1902. See also The Illustrations of William Blake for

  • Thornton's Virgil. Introduction by Geoffrey Keynes . London, 1938.
  • William Blake's Designs for Gray's Poems . Reproduced with an Introduction

from the unique copy belonging to His Grace the Duke of Hamilton. With an Introduction by H.J.C. Grierson . London, 1922. Facsimile edition, London (Trianon Press), 1972.

  • Milton, John. Poems in English. With illustrations by William Blake .

London, 1926. 2 vols.

  • Illustrations of the Book of Job . Being all the Water-Colour Designs, Pencil

Drawings and Engravings Reproduced in Facsimile. Introduction by Laurence Binyon and Geoffrey Keynes . New York, 1935. The engravings have been reproduced in a number of other editions, including ed. Laurence Binyon , London, 1906; ed. Kenneth Patchen , New York , 1947. See also William Blake's Engravings (ed. Keynes), below.

  • Blake's Illustrations to the Divine Comedy . By Albert S. Roe . Princeton,

1953. With an excellent introductory essay and bibliography.

  • William Blake's Illustrations to the Bible. A Catalogue compiled by Geoffrey

Keynes . London (Trianon Press), 1957.

  • Gilchrist, Alexander . Life of William Blake . (Completed after the death of

Gilchrist by D. G. Rossetti .) London and Cambridge, 1863, 2 vols. Revised and enlarged edn., London, 1880, 2 vols. (References in the text are to the 1880 edition.) The best working edition is that edited by Ruthven Todd for Everyman's Library (London and New York, 1942), with an excellent bibliography.

  • Wilson, Mona . The Life of William Blake . London, 1927. Rev. edn., with

additional notes, London, 1948. The standard biography.

  • Blunt, Anthony . The Art of William Blake . New York, 1959.
  • Erdman, David V . 115 Blake: Prophet against Empire . A Poet's

Interpretation of the History of His Own Times. Princeton, 1954.

  • Frye, Northrop . Fearful Symmetry . A Study of William Blake. Princeton,

1947. (Beacon paperback, 1962.)

  • Harper, George Mills . The Neoplatonism of William Blake . Chapel Hill,

1961.

  • Hirst, Désirée . Hidden Riches: Traditional Symbolism from the Renaissance to

Blake . London, 1964. Schorer, Mark . William Blake: The Politics of Vision . New York, 1946. (Vintage paperback, 1959.)

  • Todd, Ruthven . "William Blake and the Eighteenth-Century Mythologists." In: Tracks in the Snow . Studies in English Science and Art. London, 1946.
  • Yeats, William Butler . 'William Blake and his Illustrations to the Divine

Comedy' and "William Blake and the Imagination." In: Ideas of Good and Evil . London, 1903. Reprinted in Essays and Introductions. London, 1961. The essay, The Necessity of Symbolism, in vol. I of the Ellis and Yeats edition of Blake's Works, is also by W. B. Yeats .

  • Aeschylus . The Tragedies . Translated by R. Potter . Norwich, 1777.

Agrippa von Nettesheim , Heinrich Cornelius . Three Books of Occult Philosophy . Translated by J. F. London , 1651.

  • Apuleius, Lucius . The .XI. Bookes of the Golden Asse . Translated by

William Adlington . London, 1566.

  • Bacon, Francis . The New Atlantis . In: Sylva Sylvarum, or, A Natural

History. Published by William Rawley . London, 1627.

  • Bacon, Roger . The Mirror of Alchimy . Translated by Thomas Creede .

London, 1597. Barrett, Francis . The Magus, or Celestial Intelligencer . London, 1801. 2 parts.

  • Bayley, Harold . The Lost Language of Symbolism . London, 1912. 2 vols.

Berkeley, George . Works . Edited by A. A. Luce and T. E. Jessop . London, 1948â€57. 9 vols.

  • [ Boehme, Jacob .] The Works of Jacob Behmen . [Edited by G. Ward and T.

Langcake. ] London, 1764-1781. 4 vols. This is the edition commonly known under the name of William Law. Each work in each volume is separately paginated.

  • Bryant, Jacob . 116 A New System, or an Analysis of Ancient Mythology:

Wherein an Attempt is made to divest Tradition of Fable, and to Reduce the Truth to its Original Purity . London, 1774-1776. 3 vols.

  • Burnet, Thomas . Archaeologiae Philosophicae: sive Doctrina antiqua de

rerum originibus libri duo . London, 1692. Burnet, Thomas . The Theory of the Earth, and of its Proofs . London, 1690.

  • Dante Alighieri . The Divina Commedia. Translated into English Verse by

the Rev. Henry Boyd . London, 1802. 3 vols. Dante Alighieri . The Inferno . Translated by H. F. Cary . London, 1805-1806. 2 vols.

  • Davies, Edward . Celtic Researches, on the Origin, Traditions, and

Language of the Ancient Britons . London, 1804. Davies, Edward . The Mythology and Rites of the British Druids. London, 1809.

  • Descartes, Rene . Principles of Philosophy, and a Voyage to the World of

Carte-sius . Written originally in French [by G. Daniel], and now translated into English [by T. Taylor ]. London, 1692. Fludd, Robert . Mosaicall Philosophy, grounded upon the essential truth or eternal sapience . Written first in Latin, and afterwards thus rendered into English. London, 1659. Fludd, Robert . Philosophia Sacra . Frankfurt, 1626. Freud, Sigmund . “The Theme of the Three Caskets.” Translated by C.J.M. Hubback . In Complete Psychological Works , vol. 12. London, 1958.

  • Geoffrey of Monmouth . The British History . Translated by Aaron Thompson . London, 1817.

[ Hermes Trismegistus .] The Divine Pymander of Hermes Mercurius Trismegistus . Translated from the Arabic by Dr. [John] Everard [1650]. With an introduction by Hargrave Jennings . London, 1884. Homer . The Iliad and Odyssey . Translated into English blank verse by W. Cowper . London, 1791. 2 vols. Homer . The Whole Works of Homer, Prince of Poetts, in his Iliads, and Odysses . Translated according to the Greek. By George Chapman . London, [1612]. 2 parts. Johnson, Samuel . The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia . Edited by R. W. Chapman . Oxford, 1927.

  • Jones, Sir William . Works . London, 1807. 13 vols.

Jones, Sir William . “On the Gods of Greece, Italy, and India,” 117 Asiatick Researches (Calcutta), I (1788), 221â€275. Macpherson, James . An Introduction to the History of Great Britain and Ireland . 2nd edn., enlarged, London, 1772. Macpherson, James . 118 The Works of Ossian . Translated by James Macpherson . 3rd edn., London, 1765. 2 vols. Mahony, Capt . “On Singhala, or Ceylon, and the Doctrines of Bhooddha, from the Books of the Singhalais ,” Asiatick Researches (Calcutta), VII (1801), 32â€56.

  • Mallet, Paul Henri . Northern Antiquities . Translated [by Bishop Percy ].

London, 1770. 2 vols. Mankowitz, Wolf . The Portland Vase and the Wedgwood Copies . London, 1952. Mead, G.R.S. Orpheus . London, 1896. Morley, Edith J . (ed.). Blake, Coleridge, Wordsworth, Lamb , etc. Being Selec-tions from the Remains of Henry Crabb Robinson. Manchester, London and New York, 1922. Mosheim, Johanna Lorenz von . An Ecclesiastical History, Antient and Modern . Translated by A. Maclaine . London, 1765. 2 vols. Newton, Isaac . The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Translated by Andrew Motte . London, 1729. 2 vols. Newton, Isaac . Opticks. London, 1704. 3rd edn., corrected, London, 1721.

  • Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso) . Fasti or the Romans Sacred Calendar .

Translated by W. Massey . London, 1757. Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso) . Metamorphoses . In fifteen books. Translated by the most Eminent Hands [ J. Dryden and others]. Edited by Sir Samuel Garth. London, 1717. Paracelsus (Theophrastus Bombast of Hohenheim) . Archidoxes [and other works]. Translated by J. H. [? James Howell ]. London, 1661. 2 parts. Paracelsus (Theophrastus Bombast of Hohenheim) . Aurora and Treasure of the Philosophers . Translated by J. H. London , 1659. Paracelsus (Theophrastus Bombast of Hohenheim) . Nine Books on the Nature of Things . See Sendivogius.

  • Paracelsus (Theophrastus Bombast of Hohenheim) . Of the Chymical

Transmutation, Genealogy and Generation of Metals and Minerals…. Translated by R. Turner . London, 1657. Paracelsus (Theophrastus Bombast of Hohenheim) . Philosophy Reformed & Improved in four Profound Tractates… Dis-covering the Wonderfull Mysteries of the Creation, by Paracelsus: being his Philosophy to the Athenians . Translated by R. Turner . London, 1657.

  • Percy, Thomas . Reliques of Ancient English Poetry . London, 1765. 3 vols.

Percy, Thomas . See also Mallet.

  • Plato. See Taylor (5, 6).
  • Plotinus. See Taylor (1, 8).
  • Plutarch. Morals. Translated from the Greek by Several Hands [ M. Morgan ,

S. Ford , W. Dillingham , T. Hoy , etc.]. 4th edn., London, 1704. 5 vols. (1st edn., 1684-94.) ('Of the Face, appearing within the Orb of the Moon,' tr. A. G., Gent., vol. 5, pp. 217â€274.)

  • Plutarch. Morals. . Treatise of Isis and Osiris . Translated by Samuel Squire .

Cambridge, 1744. 2 parts.

  • Priestley, Joseph . A Comparison of the Institutions of Moses with Those of

The Hindoos . Northumberland, Pennsylvania, 1799.

  • Priestley, Joseph . An History of Early Opinions Concerning Jesus Christ .

Birmingham, 1786. 4 vols.

  • Proclus. See Taylor (3, 7).
  • Robinson, Henry Crabb . See Morley.
  • Rousseau, Jean-Jacques . Eloisa: or, a Series of Original Letters .

Translated [by William Kenrick ]. London, 1784. 4 vols.

  • Sendivogius, Michael . A New Light of Alchymie;… also Nine Books of the

Nature of Things, written by Paracelsus… etc. Translated out of the Latin by J[ohn] F[rench]. London, 1650.

  • Sophocles . The Tragedies . Translated by Thomas Francklin . London,

1759. 2 vols.

  • Sophocles . The Tragedies . Translated by Robert Potter . London, 1788.
  • Stuart, James , and Revett, Nicholas . The Antiquities of Athens, measured

and delineated . London, 1762â€1816. 4 vols.

  • Stukeley, William . Abury, A Temple of the British Druids . London, 1743.
  • Stukeley, William . Stonehenge, a Temple Restored to the British Druids .

London, 1740.

  • Stukeley, William . A Letter… to Mr Macpherson on his Publication of Fingal

and Temora . London, 1763.

  • Swedenborg, Emanuel . Arcana Coelestia. Translated by a Society of

Gentlemen [actually, John Clowes ]. London, 1802â€12. 13 vols.

  • Swedenborg, Emanuel . The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the

Lord . 3rd edn., London, 1791.

  • Swedenborg, Emanuel . The Heavenly Doctrine of the New Jerusalem .

London, 1792.

  • Swedenborg, Emanuel . A Treatise Concerning Heaven and Hell .

[Translated by W. Cookworthy and T. Hartley. ] London, 1778.

  • Swedenborg, Emanuel . A Treatise concerning the Last Judgement .

London, 1788.

  • Swedenborg, Emanuel . A Continuation concerning the Last Judgement, and

the Spiritual World . London, 1791.

  • Swedenborg, Emanuel . True Christian Religion; containing the Universal

Theology of the New Church . London, 1781. 2 vols.

  • Swedenborg, Emanuel . The Wisdom of Angels concerning Divine Love and

Divine Wisdom . London, 1788.

  • Swedenborg, Emanuel . The Wisdom of Angels concerning the Divine

Providence . London, 1790.

  • Taylor, Thomas . [Note: In view of the importance of Taylor as the source of

Blake's knowledge of the Platonic philosophy, I have listed all his relevant works published up to and including 1805, the date of Blake's 119 Milton. He continued to publish until 1834, but his later works do not seem to have influenced Blake’s thought.] A complete bibliography of Taylor’s works is given in Thomas Taylor the Platonist: Selected Writings . Ed. Kathleen Raine and George Mills Harper. (Bollingen Series LXXXVIII.) Princeton, 1969.

(1) Concerning the Beautiful, or a paraphrased translation from the Greek of Plotinus, Ennead I , Book 6. London, 1787. (Reprinted as An Essay on the Beautiful, London, 1792.)

(2) The Mystical Initiations, or, Hymns of Orpheus . Translated from the… Greek, with a Preliminary Dissertation on the Life and Theology of Orpheus. London, 1787. (2nd edn., The Hymns of Orpheus , London, 1792; 3rd edn., The Mystical Hymns of Orpheus, London, 1824.)

(3) The Philosophical and Mathematical Commentaries of Proclus on the First Book of Euclid’s Elements… to which are added, the History of the Restoration of the Platonic Theology by the Latter Platonists, and a Translation… of Proclus’ Elements of Theology. London, 1788-89. 2 vols. (2nd edn., 1792; rev. edn., 1823: see below, no. 18.) ("On the Cave of the Nymphs," vol. 2, pp. 278â€307.)

(4) A Dissertation on the Eleusinian and Bacchic Mysteries. Amsterdam, [1790]. (Appeared also in The Pamphleteer, vol. 8, London, 1816.)

(5) (tr.) The Phaedrus of Plato . London, 1792.

(6) ( tr. ) The Cratylus, Phaedo, Parmenides and Timaeus of Plato . London, 1793.

(7) ( tr .) Sallust on the Gods and the World; and the Pythagoric Sentences of Demophilus, translated from the Greek; and Five Hymns by Proclus… with a Poetical Version . London, 1793.

(8) ( tr. ) Five Books of Plotinus . London, 1794. (9) ( tr. ) The Fable of Cupid and Psyche, translated from… Apuleius . London, 1795. [ Vaughan, Thomas .] Anima Magica Abscondita, or, A Discourse of the Univer-sall Spirit of Nature . By Eugenius Philalethes. London, 1650. [ Vaughan, Thomas . Anthroposophia Theomagica; or a Discourse of the Nature of Man and his State after Death . By Eugenius Philalethes . London, 1650. [ Vaughan, Thomas . Aula Lucis, or The House of Light … By S. N., a Modern Speculator. London, 1652. [ Vaughan, Thomas . Coelum Terrae . See Magia Adamica, below. [ Vaughan, Thomas . Euphrates, or The Waters of the East . By Eugenius Philalethes . London, 1655. [ Vaughan, Thomas . Lumen de Lumine, or, A New Magicall Light . By Eugenius Philalethes . London, 1651. [ Vaughan, Thomas . 120 Magia Adamica, or, The Antiquitie of Magic…. whereunto is added…. Coelum Terrae. By Eugenius Philalethes. London, 1650.

  • [ Vaughan, Thomas . The Works of Thomas Vaughan: Eugenius Philalethes

. Edited by A. E. Waite . London, 1919.

  • Virgil . Works: containing his Pastorals, Georgics, and Aeneis . Translated

into English Verse by John Dryden . London, 1697.

  • Warburton, William . The Divine Legation of Moses . 4th rev. and enl. edn.,

London, 1755â€1765. 5 vols. in 7 parts.

  • Watts, Isaac . Divine Songs attempted in Easy Language for the Use of

Children . 9th edn., London, 1728. Another edn., Kidderminister [? 1790].

  • Wilkins, Sir Charles ( tr .). The Bhagvat-Geeta, or Dialogues of Kreeshna

and Arjoon. London, 1785.

  • Winckelmann, J. J. Reflections on the Paintings and Sculptures of the

Greeks . Translated by H. F[üssli ]. London, 1765.

  • Yeats, William Butler . Autobiographies . London, 1926; 2nd edn., 1955.
  • Yeats, William Butler . Collected Plays . London, 1934; 2nd edn., 1952.
  • Yeats, William Butler . Collected Poems . 2nd edn., London and New York,

1950.

  • Yeats, WilliamButler . (ed.). The Oxford Book of Modern Verse, 1892â€1935 .

Oxford, 1936.

  • Yeats, William Butler . A Vision . London, 1925; 2nd edn., 1937.